U Chand4

Created by Jijith Nadumuri at 19 Oct 2011 14:05 and updated at 19 Oct 2011 14:05

CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

CHAPTER 4

KHANDA 1

1 Aum. There lived Janasruti Pautrayana who made gifts with respect, who gave liberally, and who had much food cooked (for others). He built rest houses all round, thinking, ‘Everywhere people will eat of my food

2 Once at night, the swans flew along. Then one swan addressed another swan thus, ‘Ho, Ho, O Bhallaksa, Bhallaksa, the effulgence of Janasruti Pautrayana has spread like the Heaven. Do not come in touch with it, lest it should scorch you.

3 Bhallaksa replied to him, ‘lo, how could you so describe him as if he were Raikva with the cart ‘Of what sort is this Raikva with the cart

4 ‘Just as all the lower casts of the dice go over to one who has won the Krita cast, so does go over to Raikva whatsoever good the creatures do; so also to him who knows what Raikva knows. Such is he who has thus been spoken of by me.

5,6 Janasruti Pautrayana overheard those words. As soon as he arose, he said to the attendant, ‘Lo, did you praise me like Raikva with the cart ‘What sort of man is this Raikva with the cart Janasruti( repeated the words of the swan) ‘Just as all the lower casts of the dice go over to one who has won the Krita cast, so does go over to Raikva whatsoever good the creatures do; and so also to him who knows what Raikva knows. Such is he who has thus been spoken of by me

7 The attendant, having searched for him, came back thinking, ‘I could not find him Janasruti said to him, ‘Well, where the knower of Brahman should be searched for there search for him

8 (After searching) he came to a man sitting under a cart and scratching eruptions on his skin and, sitting near him, asked him, ‘Revered sir, are you Raikva with the cart ‘Well fellow, yes, I am he admitted. Thinking ‘I have found him the attendant returned.

KHANDA 2

1,2 On hearing this, Janasruti Pautrayana took with him Six hundred Cows, a Gold necklace, and a Chariot drawn by Mules and went to Raikva and addressed him thus ‘O Raikva, (here are for you) these Six hundred Cows, this Gold necklace, and this Chariot drawn by Mules. Now, revered sir, instruct me about the deity whom you worship.

3 The other man answered him thus ‘Ah, O Sudra, let this Gold necklace together with the Chariot and the Cows remain with you. Thereupon Janasruti Pautrayana again took with him one thousand Cows, a Gold necklace, a Chariot drawn by Mules and his daughter and went over to Raikva.

4 Janasruti said to him ‘O Raikva, (here are for you) these one thousand Cows, this Gold necklace, this Chariot drawn by Mules, this wife, and this Village in which you reside. Now, revered sir, please instruct me

5 Taking that princess to be the portal for the conveying of knowledge, Raikva said, ‘O Sudra, you have brought all these Even by this means (i.e. the princess) you will make me talk. The king gave away to him all those Villages in the Mahavrisa country known as Raikvaparna where Raikva lived. Raikva said to him

KHANDA 3

1 Vayu indeed is the absorber. For when a fire goes out, it is in air that it merges; when the sun sets, it is in air that it merges; when the moon sets, it is in air that it merges.

2 When Water dries up, it is in air that it merges; for air absorbs all these. This is (the doctrine of Samvarga) with reference to the Devas.

3 Next is (the doctrine of Samvarga) with reference to the body Prana indeed is the absorber. When one sleeps, speech merges in Prana, the eye merges in Prana, the ear merges in Prana, the mind merges in Prana for Prana, indeed, absorbs all these.

4 These, indeed, are the Two absorbers Vayu among the Devas and Prana among the sense organs.

5 Once upon a time, while Kapeya Saunaka and Kaksaseni Abhipratarin were being served with food, a celibate student of sacred knowledge begged of them. They did not give him anything.

6 The Brahmacharin said, Prajapati‘, the one Deva swallowed up the Four great ones; he is the protector of the worlds. O Kapeya, O Abhipratarin, mortals do not see him who dwells variously. Even from him, for whom all this food is meant, you have withheld it.

7 Kapeya Saunaka, reflecting on those words, approached him (and said) ‘He who is the self of all Devas and the creator of all beings, who has undecaying teeth, who is the devourer, who is the wise one, who is himself never eaten (but) who devours even those who are not food; and hence (the knowers) describe his magnificence as immeasurable such, indeed, is the Brahman, O Brahmacharin, whom we worship (Then he told the servants) ‘Give him food

8 They gave him food. Now, these Five and the other five, together becoming ten, constitute the Krita (dice cast). Therefore (i.e. because the number Ten applies to both), these Ten are the food or Virat dwelling in all the Ten quarters, and these are (the enjoyer) Krita. This Virat, of the form of Ten deities, again, is the eater of food (as Krita); by him all this is perceived. He who sees thus, by him also all this is perceived, and he becomes as eater of food.

KHANDA 4

1 Once upon a time Satyakama Jabala addressed his mother Jabala, Mother‘, I desire to live the life of a celibate student of sacred knowledge in the teacher s house. Of what lineage am I

2 She said to him, ‘My child, I do not know of what lineage you are. I, who was engaged in many works and in attending on others, got you in my youth. Having been such I could not know of what lineage you are. However, I am Jabala by name and you are named Satyakama. So you speak of yourself only as Satyakama Jabala.

3 He went to Haridrumata Gautama and said, ‘I desire to live under you, revered sir, as a Brahmacharin; may I approach your venerable self (for the same)

4 Gautama asked him, ‘Dear boy, of what lineage are you He replied, Sir‘, I do not know of what lineage I am. I asked my mother; she replied, "I, who was engaged in many works and in attending on others, got you in my youth. Having been such, I could not know of what lineage you are. However, I am Jabala by name and you are named Satyakama". So, sir, I am Satyakama Jabala.

5 The teacher said to him, ‘No one who is not a Brahmana can speak thus. Dear boy, bring the sacrificial fuel, I shall initiate you as a Brahmacharin, for you have not deviated from truth Having initiated him, he sorted out Four hundred lean and weak Cows and said, ‘Dear boy, follow them. While he was driving them towards the Forest Satyakama said, ‘I shall not return till it is one thousand. He lived away for a long time, till they had increased to one thousand.

KHANDA 5

1 Then the bull addressed him thus, Satyakama‘ ‘Yes, revered sir thus he responded, ‘Dear boy, we have reached a thousand, take us to the house of the teacher.

2 ‘Let me instruct you about one foot of Brahman also ‘Please instruct me, revered sir. (The bull) said to him, ‘The eastern quarter is one part, the western quarter is one part, the southern quarter is one part, the northern quarter is one part. This indeed, dear boy, is one foot of Brahman, consisting of four, named the Radiant.

3 ‘He who knows this one foot of Brahman consisting of Four parts thus, and meditates on it as the Radiant, becomes radiant in this world. He who knows this one foot of Brahman consisting of Four parts thus, and meditates on it as the Radiant, wins the radiant regions (in the next world).

KHANDA 6

1 Agni‘ will tell you of one foot of Brahman At dawn of the next day he drove the Cows towards the teacher s house. Towards evening, at the place where those Cows came together, he kindled the fire there, penned the Cows, laid on fuel and sat down near them behind the fire, facing the east.

2 The fire addressed him, Satyakama‘ ‘Yes, revered sir he responded.

3 ‘Dear boy, let me instruct you about one foot of Brahman ‘Please instruct me, revered sir. (The fire) said to him, ‘The Earth is one part, the sky is one part, Heaven is one part, and the ocean is one part. This indeed, dear boy, is one foot of Brahman, consisting of Four parts, named the Endless.

4 ‘He who knows this one foot of Brahman consisting of Four parts thus, and meditates on it as the Endless, becomes endless in this world. He who knows this one foot of Brahman consisting of Four parts thus, and meditates on it as the Endless, wins the endless (undecaying) regions.

KHANDA 7

1 ‘The swan will tell you of one foot of Brahman At dawn of the next day, he drove the Cows towards the teacher s house. Towards evening, at the place where the Cows came together, he kindled the fire there, penned the Cows, laid on fuel and sat down near them behind the fire facing the east.

2 The swan flew to him and addressed him, Satyakama‘ ‘Yes, revered sir he responded.

3 ‘Dear boy, let me instruct you about one foot of Brahman ‘Please instruct me revered sir. (The swan) said to him, Agni‘ is one part, the sun is one part, the moon is one part, and lightning is one part. This indeed, dear boy, is one foot of Brahman, consisting of Four parts, named the Effulgent.

4 ‘He who knows this one foot of Brahman consisting of Four parts thus, and meditates on it as the Effulgent, becomes effulgent in this world. He who knows this one foot of Brahman consisting of Four parts thus, and meditates on it as the Effulgent, wins the effulgent regions (of the sun, the moon, etc., in the next world).

KHANDA 8

1 Madgu‘ will tell you of one foot of Brahman At dawn of the next day, he drove the Cows towards the teacher s house. Towards evening at the place where the Cows came together, he kindled the fire there, penned the Cows, laid on fuel and sat down near them behind the fire facing the east.

2 The Madgu bird flew to him and addressed him, Satyakama‘ ‘Yes, revered sir he responded.

3 ‘Dear boy, let me instruct you about one foot of Brahman ‘Please instruct me, revered sir (The Madgu bird) said to him, Prana‘ is one part, the eye is one part, the ear is one part, and the mind is one part. This indeed, dear boy, is one foot of Brahman, consisting of Four parts, named the Repository.

4 ‘He who knows this one foot of Brahman consisting of Four parts thus, and meditates on it as the Repository, becomes repository (i.e. with proper abode) in this world. He who knows this one foot of Brahman consisting of Four parts thus, and meditates on it as the Repository, wins the repository (i.e. extensive) regions (in the next world).

KHANDA 9

1 Satyakama reached the house of the teacher. The teacher addressed him, Satyakama‘ ‘Yes, revered sir he responded.

2 ‘Dear boy, you shine like a knower of Brahman; who is it that has instructed you Satyakama assured him, People‘ other than men. But I wish, revered sir, that you would expound it to me.

3 ‘I have definitely heard from persons like your venerable self that the knowledge directly learnt from one s own teacher becomes most beneficial The teacher taught him the same thing, and nothing was omitted from this yea, nothing was omitted.

KHANDA 10

1 Once upon a time Upakosala Kamalayana lived with Satyakama Jabala the life of a Brahmacharin. He tended his fires for twelve years. Satyakama performed for other disciples the ceremony of completing studies and returning home, but did not perform the ceremony for Upakosala.

2 The wife of the teacher said to him, ‘This Brahmacharin has undergone severe austerities and has tended the fires properly; you should teach him so that the fires may not blame you. But the teacher went away on a journey without instructing him.

3 Through mental sufferings Upakosala began to fast. The wife of the teacher said to him, ‘O Brahmacharin, do eat; why are you not eating He replied, ‘In this (very ordinary and disappointed) man (i.e. myself) there are many desires running in various directions; I am full of mental sufferings; so I shall not eat.

4 Thereupon the fires said among themselves, ‘This Brahmacharin has undergone severe austerities and has tended us properly; come let us instruct him They then said to him, Prana‘ (life) is Brahman, Ka (joy) is Brahman, Kha (ether) is Brahman

5 He said, ‘I understand that Prana is Brahman; but I do not understand Ka and Kha. They said, ‘What is Ka, even that is Kha; and what is Kha, even that is Ka Then the fires instructed him about Prana Brahman() and the Akasa within the heart related to it.

KHANDA 11

1 Then the Garhapatya fire instructed him Earth‘, fire, food and the sun (are my forms). The person who is seen in the sun, I am he, I am he, indeed.

2 ‘He who knows it thus and meditates on it, destroys sinful acts, wins the region (of fire), reaches the full length of life, lives gloriously, and his descendants never perish. We protect him in this world and in the next, who knows it thus and meditates on it.

KHANDA 12

1 Then the Anvaharyapacana fire instructed him Water‘, the quarters, the stars and the moon (are my forms). The person who is seen in the moon, I am he, I am he indeed.

2 ‘He who knows it thus and meditates on it, destroys sinful acts, wins the region (of fire), reaches the full length of life, lives gloriously, and his descendants never perish. We protect him in this world and in the next, who knows it thus and meditates on it.

KHANDA 13

1 Then the Ahavaniya fire instructed him, Prana‘, Akasa, Heaven and lightning (are my forms). The person who is seen in the lightning, I am he; I am he, indeed.

2 ‘He who knows it thus and meditates on it, destroys sinful acts, wins the region (of fire), reaches the full length of life, lives gloriously, and his descendants never perish. We protect him in this world and in the next, who knows it thus and meditates on it.

KHANDA 14

1 The fires said, ‘O Upakosala, dear boy, to you (are revealed) this knowledge of the fires and the knowledge of the Atman; but the teacher will tell you the way. His teacher came back. The teacher addressed him Upakosala

2 ‘Yes, revered sir he responded. ‘Dear boy, your face shines like that of a knower of Brahman who is it that has instructed you ‘Who should instruct me sir said he. Here he concealed the truth, as it were. ‘For this reason it is that though they were (formerly) otherwise they are now this wise So saying, he hinted at the (part played by the) fires in this matter. ‘What did they tell you, dear boy

3 ‘This thus he acknowledged. ‘Dear boy, they have told you about the regions only; but I shall tell you the object of your desire (i.e. Brahman). Just as Water does not cling to the lotus leaf, so also sin does not cling to him who knows Brahman thus ‘Revered sir, please instruct me further (The teacher) said to him

KHANDA 15

1 ‘This person who is seen in the eye, he is the Atman said the teacher; ‘this is the immortal, the fearless. This is Brahman. Hence, even if one sprinkles clarified butter or Water into the eye, it goes away to the edges.

2 ‘The knowers of Brahman call him as the centre of blessings; for all blessings come together in him. All blessings come together in him who knows thus.

3 ‘He, again, is the vehicle of blessings; for he carries all blessings. He who knows it thus carries all blessings. He who knows it thus carries all blessings.

4 ‘He again, is the vehicle of light; for he shines in all the regions. He who knows it thus shines in all the regions.

5 ‘Now, as for such persons, whether the cremation rites are performed or not, they go to light; from light to the day; from the day to the bright fortnight; from the bright fortnight to those Six months during which (the sun) rises towards the north; from the months to the year; from the year to the sun; from the sun to the moon; from the moon to the lightning. (From the region of Brahman) a person, who is other than human, (comes and) causes them existing there, to realize Brahman. This is the path of the Devas and the path to Brahman. Those who go by this path do not return to this human whirlpool yes, they do not return.

KHANDA 16

1 He who blows (i.e. air) is indeed the sacrifice, he, moving along, purifies all this. And because moving along he purifies all this, he is the sacrifice. Mind and speech are the Two paths of this sacrifice.

2,3 One of these Two paths, the Brahman priest embellishes with the mind. The Hotir, Adhvaryu and Udgatir priests embellish the other with speech. After the Prataranuvaka (the morning recitation) is commenced, and before the Paridhaniya Rik is begun, if the Brahman priest speaks out (breaking silence), then he embellishes only one path (viz. Speech) and the other is injured. Just as a man walking with one leg, or a Chariot moving with one wheel suffers injury, so also that sacrifice of this one suffers injury, and when the sacrifice suffers injury, the sacrificer also suffers injury. For having completed the (defective) sacrifice, he becomes a worse sinner.

4 But, after the Prataranuvaka is commenced and before the Paridhaniya Rik is begun, if the Brahman priest does not break his silence then both the paths are embellished; and neither one is injured.

5 And just as a man walking with both the legs, or a Chariot moving with both the wheels, remains intact, so also the sacrifice of this one remains intact. If the sacrifice remains intact, the sacrificer also remains intact. He becomes great by performing the sacrifice.

KHANDA 17

1 Prajapati brooded on the worlds. From them thus brooded upon, he extracted their essences; fire from the Earth, air from the sky and the sun from Heaven.

2 He brooded on these Three deities. From them thus brooded upon, he extracted their essences the Riks from fire, the Yajus mantras from air, and the Saman from the sun.

3 He brooded on the Three Vedas. From them thus brooded upon, he extracted their existences; Bhuh from the Riks, Bhuvah from the Yajus mantras and Svah from the Samans.

4 Therefore if the sacrifice is rendered defective on account of the Riks, then with the Mantra BhuhSvaha (the Brahman priest) should offer an oblation in the Garhapatya fire. Thus verily, through the essence of the Riks, through the virility of the Riks, he makes good the injury of the sacrifice in respect of the Riks.

5 And if the sacrifice is rendered defective on account of the Yajus, then with the Mantra BhuvahSvaha (the Brahman priest) should offer an oblation in the Daksinagni. Thus verily, through the essence of the Yajus mantras, through the virility of the Yajus mantras, he makes good the injury of the sacrifice in respect of the Yajus mantras.

6 And if the sacrifice is rendered defective on account of the Samans, then with the Mantra SvahSvaha (the Brahman priest) should offer an oblation to the Ahavaniya fire. Thus verily, through the essence of the Samans, through the virility of the Saman, he makes good the injury of the sacrifice in respect of the Samans.

7,8 Just as one would join Gold with salt, silver with gold, tin with silver, lead with tin, iron with lead, wood with iron, and wood with leather, even so does (the Brahman priest) make good the injury of the sacrifice through the virility of these regions, of these deities, and of the Three Vedas. That sacrifice indeed is healed where there is a Brahman priest knowing thus.

9 That sacrifice indeed becomes inclined to the north, where there is a Brahman priest knowing thus. It is in reference to the Brahman priest knowing thus that there is this song ‘Whence so ever the sacrifice comes back, thither verily does the Brahman priest go (to remedy)

10 Just as the mare protects (the soldier), even so the silent Brahman priest is the only priest who protects the people engaged in rituals. The Brahman priest who knows thus verily protects the sacrifice, the sacrificer, and all the priests. Hence one should appoint as a Brahman priest only him who knows thus, not one who does not know thus yea, not one who does not know thus.

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