U Chand1

Created by Jijith Nadumuri at 19 Oct 2011 14:03 and updated at 19 Oct 2011 14:03

CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

CHAPTER 1

KHANDA 1

1 Let a man meditate on the syllable Aum; the Udgitha, for one sings the Udgitha, beginning with Aum. Of this, the detailed explanation follows.

2 The essence of all these beings is the Earth. The essence of the Earth is Water. The essence of Water is vegetation. The essence of vegetation is man. The essence of man is speech. The essence of speech is Rik. The essence of Rik is Saman. The essence of Saman is Udgitha.

3 The syllable Aum which is called Udgitha, is the quintessence of the essences, the supreme, deserving of the highest place and the eighth.

4 Which one is Rik Which one is Saman Which one is Udgitha This is being considered now.

5 Speech alone is Rik. Prana is Saman. The syllable Aum is Udgitha. Speech and Prana, (the sources of) Rik and Saman, taken together form a couple.

6 This couple is joined together in the syllable Aum. Whenever a couple come together, they, indeed, fulfil each other s desire.

7 He who meditates upon this syllable as Udgitha knowing it thus (as the fulfiller), verily becomes a fulfiller of all the desirable ends.

8 That verily is the syllable of assent, for whenever one assents to a thing, one says only Aum‘ Assent alone is prosperity. He who meditates upon this syllable as Udgitha, knowing it thus (as endowed with the quality of prosperity), verily becomes one who increases all the desirable ends.

9 With this does the threefold knowledge proceed; (because) with Aum does one cause to listen; with Aum does one recite; with Aum does one sing aloud. For the worship of this syllable, with its own greatness and essence (the Vedic rites are performed).

10 He who knows it thus and he who does not know both perform actions with it. For knowledge and ignorance are different (in their results). Whatever is performed with knowledge, faith and meditation becomes more effective. Up to this truly is the explanation of (the greatness of) this syllable Aum.

KHANDA 2

1 Once upon a time the Devas and the Asuras, both descendants of Prajapati, were engaged in a fight. In that fight, the Devas performed the rites of the Udgatir priests resolving, ‘With this we shall defeat them

2 Then they meditated on (the deity of) Prana connected with the nose, as Udgitha; the Asuras pierced it with evil. Therefore with it, the nose, one smells both the fragrant and the foul, for it has been pierced with evil.

3 Then they meditated on (the deity of) speech as Udgitha; the Asuras pierced it with evil. Therefore with it one speaks both truth and untruth, for it has been pierced with evil.

4 Then they meditated on (the deity of) eye as Udgitha; the Asuras pierced it with evil. Therefore with the eye one sees both the sightly and the unsightly, for it has been pierced with evil.

5 Then they meditated on (the deity of) ear as Udgitha; the Asuras pierced it with evil. Therefore with the ear one hears both the pleasant and the unpleasant, for it has been pierced with evil.

6 Then they meditated on (the deity of) mind as Udgitha; the Asuras pierced it with evil. Therefore with the mind one thinks both good and evil thoughts, for it has been pierced with evil.

7 Then they meditated on the Prana in the mouth as Udgitha. The Asuras came in clash with it and were destroyed, just as a lump of clay is destroyed, striking against a hard rock.

8 Thus it is that the Prana in the mouth has not been destroyed and is pure. Even as a lump of clay striking against a hard rock is destroyed, so will he be destroyed who wishes to do evil to one who knows this (the purity of Prana) or who (actually) injures that knower, for he is like a hard rock.

9 With this Prana in the mouth one discerns neither sweet smell nor foul, for it is free from sin. What one eats or drinks through this, even with that he maintains the other Pranas. And not finding this at the time of death, the Prana in the mouth and its dependants depart; and thus indeed one opens the mouth at the time of death.

10 Angiras meditated on that Prana as Udgitha. The sages consider this alone as Angirasa which is the essence of the limbs.

11 So Brihaspati meditated on Prana as Udgitha. The sages consider this alone as Brihaspati, for speech is great and this Prana is its lord.

12 So Ayasya meditated on Prana as Udgitha (identifying it with himself). The sages consider this alone as Ayasya for it goes out of the mouth.

13 Baka, the son of Dalbha, knew it thus. So he became the Udgatir singer of the sacrificers dwelling in Naimisa. For their sake he sang to fulfil their desires.

14 He who knows it thus and meditates on the Udgitha as the syllable Aum, looking upon it as Prana, certainly becomes the singer (and procurer) of the desired objects. This is the meditation with reference to the body.

KHANDA 3

1 Now the meditation (on the Udgitha) with reference to the Devas is described. One should meditate on him who gives heat (i.e. the sun) as Udgitha. Verily, when he rises, he sings aloud for the sake of all creatures. When he rises, he dispels darkness and fear. Verily, he who knows the sun as being endowed with these qualities, becomes the dispeller of darkness and (the consequent) fear.

2 This Prana in the mouth and that sun are the same. This is warm and that is warm. People call this as Svara (that is going) and that as Svara and Pratyasvara (that is going and coming). Therefore one should meditate on this Prana and that sun as Udgitha.

3 Now, verily one should meditate on Vyana as Udgitha. That which one breathes out is Prana and that which one breathes in is Apana. The junction of Prana and Apana is Vyana. That which is Vyana, even that is speech. Therefore, one utters speech while one neither breathes out nor breathes in.

4 That which is speech, even that is Rik. Therefore while one neither breathes out nor breathes in, one pronounces the Rik. That which is Rik, even that is Saman. Therefore, while one neither breathes out nor breathes in, one sings the Saman. That which is Saman, even that is Udgitha. Therefore, while one neither breathes out nor breathes in, one sings the Udgitha.

5 Therefore whatever other actions require strength, such as the kindling of fire by friction, running a race towards a goal, the bending of a strong bow, are all performed, while one neither breathes out nor breathes in. For this reason one should meditate on Vyana as Udgitha.

6 Now, one should meditate on the syllables of Udgitha‘ namely, the syllables ‘ut ‘gi and ‘tha Prana is ‘ut because through Prana one arises (ut tisthati). Speech is ‘gi because speech is called word (girah). Food is ‘tha because upon food all this is established (sthitam).

7 Heaven is ut, the sky is gi, the Earth is tha. The sun is ut, the air gi, the fire, tha. The Sama Veda is ut, the Yajur Veda gi, the Rig Veda tha. For him, speech yields the milk which is the benefit of speech. And he becomes rich in food; and an eater of food, who knows thus and meditates on the syllables of Udgitha‘ namely, ut, gi and tha.

8 Now follows the fulfilment of wishes One should meditate on the objects contemplated. One should reflect upon Saman by means of which one proceeds to sing the Stotra.

9 One should reflect upon the Rik in which that Saman occurs, upon the sage by whom it is intuited and upon the deity to whom he proceeds to pray.

10 One should reflect upon the metre in which he proceeds to sing a Stotra; and he should reflect upon the hymn with which he proceeds to sing it.

11 He should reflect upon the quarter (of Heaven) towards which he proceeds to sing a Stotra.

12 Lastly, having thought about himself, he should sing a Stotra reflecting upon his desired object avoiding all faults. Very quickly will be fulfilled for him the desire, desiring which he may sing the Stotra yea, desiring which he may sing the Stotra.

KHANDA 4

1 One should meditate on the syllable Aum, the Udgitha, for one sings the Udgitha beginning with Aum. Of this the explanation follows.

2 Verily, the Devas, being afraid of death, took refuge in the Three Vedas. They covered themselves with the metrical hymns. Because they covered themselves with these, the metrical hymns are called Chandas.

3 Just as a fisherman would see a fish in Water, so did Death observe the Devas in the (rites connected with) Rik, Saman and Yajus. They, too, knowing this, arose from the Rik, Saman and Yajus, and entered the Svara (the syllable Aum).

4 Verily, when one learns the Rik, he loudly pronounces Aum‘ It is the same with Saman and with Yajus. This syllable Aum is indeed Svara; it again is immortality and fearlessness. Having entered into Svara (i.e. having meditated) the Devas became immortal and fearless.

5 He who worships this syllable knowing it thus, enters this syllable, the Svara, which is immortality and fearlessness. And having entered it, he becomes immortal by that nectar, by which the Devas became immortal.

KHANDA 5

1 Now, that which is Udgitha is verily Pranava and that which is Pranava is Udgitha. The yonder sun is Udgitha and also Pranava, for he moves along pronouncing Aum

2 ‘To him (the sun itself) I sung; therefore you are my only son thus said Kausitaki to his son. ‘Reflect upon the Udgitha as the rays of the sun, then surely, you will have many sons. This is the meditation with reference to the Devas.

3 Now (is the meditation) with reference to the body One should meditate on him who is this Prana in the mouth, as Udgitha, for he moves along pronouncing Aum

4 ‘To him (the Prana itself) did I sing; therefore you are my only son thus said Kausitaki to his son. "I shall get many sons", thinking thus, sing praise to the Udgitha as the manifold Pranas.

5 ‘Now, that which is Udgitha, is verily Pranava; and that which is Pranava, is Udgitha so one should think. As a result of it, even if he chants wrongly, he rectifies it by the act done from the seat of the Hotr priest.

KHANDA 6

1 The Earth is Rik, the fire is Saman. This Saman rests upon that Rik. Therefore the Saman is sung as resting upon the Rik. The Earth is ‘sa the fire is ‘ama and that makes Sama

2 The sky is Rik, the air is Sama. This Saman rests upon that Rik. Therefore the Saman is sung as resting upon the Rik. The sky is ‘sa the air is ‘ama and that makes Sama

3 Heaven is Rik, the sun is Saman. This Saman rests upon that Rik. Therefore the Saman is sung as resting upon the Rik. Heaven is ‘sa the sun is ‘ama and that makes Sama

4 The stars are Rik, the moon is Saman. This Saman rests upon that Rik. Therefore the Saman is sung as resting upon the Rik. The stars are ‘sa the moon is ‘ama and that makes Sama

5 Now, the while light of the sun is Rik, the blue (light) that is extremely dark is Saman. This Saman rests upon that Rik. Therefore the Saman is sung as resting upon the Rik.

6 Again, the white light of the sun is ‘sa the blue (light) that is extremely dark is ‘ama and that makes Sama‘ Now, that Person, effulgent as gold, who is seen within the sun, who is with golden beard and golden hair, is exceedingly effulgent even to the very tips of his nails.

7 His eyes are bright like a red lotus. His name is ‘ut He has risen above all evils. Verily, he who knows thus rises above all evils.

8 Rik and Saman are his Two joints. Therefore he is Udgitha. Because the priest is the singer of this ‘ut he is the Udgitha. Moreover, he (this Person called ‘ut controls the worlds which are above that sun, as also the desires of the Devas. This is with reference to the Devas.

KHANDA 7

1 Now (is the meditation) with reference to the body Speech is Rik, Prana is Sama. This Saman rests upon that Rik. Therefore the Saman is sung as resting upon the Rik. Speech is ‘sa Prana is ‘ama and that makes Sama

2 The eye is Rik, the self (reflected in the eye) is Saman. This Saman rests upon that Rik. Therefore the Saman is sung as resting upon the Rik. The eye is ‘sa the self is ‘ama and that makes Sama

3 The ear is Rik, the mind is Saman. This Saman rests upon that Rik. Therefore the Saman is sung as resting upon the Rik. The ear is ‘sa the mind is ‘ama and that makes Sama"

4 Now, the white light of the eye is Rik, the blue (light) that is extremely dark is Saman. This Saman rests upon that Rik. Therefore the Saman is sung as resting upon the Rik. The white light of the eye is ‘sa the blue (light) that is extremely dark is ‘ama and that makes Sama

5 Now, this person who is seen within the eye he indeed is Rik, he is Saman, he is Uktha, he is Yajus, he is the Vedas. The form of this (person seen in the eye) is the same as the form of that (person seen in the sun). His joints are the same as those of the other; his name is the same as that of the other.

6 That (person in the eye) is the lord of all the worlds that are extended below, as also of the desired objects of men. So those who sing on the lute, sing of him alone and thereby become endowed with wealth.

7 Now he who sings the Saman after knowing the deity Udgitha thus, sings to both. Through that (person in the sun), he (that singer) gets the worlds beyond that sun and also the desired objects of Devas.

8,9 Similarly, through this person in the eye, one gets the worlds that are extended below this person, and also the desired objects of men. For this reason, the Udgatir priest who knows thus should ask (the sacrificer) ‘What desire shall I obtain for you by singing the Saman For he alone becomes capable of obtaining desires by singing who knowing thus sings the Saman yea, sings the Saman.

KHANDA 8

1 In ancient times there were Three proficient in Udgitha Silaka the son of Salavat, Caikitayana of the Dalbhya family and Pravahana the son of Jivala. They said, ‘We are proficient in Udgitha. If you agree, let us enter on a discussion of Udgitha

2 ‘Let it be so saying this they sat down. Then Pravahana Jaivali said, ‘You Two, revered sirs, speak first; and I shall listen to the words of Two Brahmanas conversing

3 Then Silaka Salavatya said to Caikitayana Dalbhya, ‘If you permit, I shall question you Question‘ said he.

4 Silaka( asked), ‘What is the essence of Saman ‘The tune said Dalbhya(). ‘What is the essence of the tune Prana‘ said Dalbhya(). ‘What is the essence of Prana Food‘ said Dalbhya(). ‘What is the essence of food Water‘ said Dalbhya().

5 ‘What is the essence of Water ‘That (heavenly world) said Dalbhya(). ‘What is the essence of the world ‘One cannot carry (the Saman) beyond the heavenly world said Dalbhya; ‘we locate the Saman in the world of Heaven, for Saman is praised as Heaven

6 Then Silaka Salavatya said to Caikitayana Dalbhya ‘O Dalbhya, your Saman is not indeed established. If someone one were to say, "Your head shall fall down", surely your head would fall down

7 Dalbhya() ‘Will you permit me, sir, to learn this of you ‘Learn said Silaka(). ‘What is the essence of that (heavenly) world ‘This Earth said Silaka(), ‘What is the essence of this Earth ‘One cannot carry the Saman beyond this world as its support said Silaka; ‘we locate the Saman in this world as its support, for Saman is extolled as the Earth

8 Pravahana Jaivali said to him, ‘O Salavatya, your Sama, really, has a further end. If someone now were to say, "Your head shall fall down", surely your head would fall down. Salavatya() ‘Will you permit me, sir, to learn (this of you ‘Learn said Jaivali().

KHANDA 9

1 Salavatya() ‘What is the essence of this world Akasa‘ said Pravahana(); ‘All these beings arise from Akasa alone and are finally dissolved into Akasa; because Akasa alone is greater than all these and Akasa is the support at all times.

2 It is this Udgitha which is progressively higher and better. This again is endless. He who, knowing thus, meditates upon the progressively higher and better Udgitha, obtains progressively higher and better lives and wins progressively higher and better worlds.

3 Atidhanvan, the son of Sunaka, having taught this to Udarasandilya, said, ‘As long as among your descendants, this knowledge of the Udgitha continues, so long their life in this world will be progressively higher and better than ordinary lives.

4 ‘And in that other world also their state will be similar He who knows and meditates thus his life in this world surely becomes progressively higher and better, and so also his state in that other world yea, in that other world.

KHANDA 10

1 When the crops in the Kuru country had been destroyed by hailstorms, there lived Usasti, the son of Cakra with his young wife in a deplorable condition in the Village of Elephant drivers.

2 He begged food of an Elephant driver, while he was eating beans of an inferior quality. The driver said to him, ‘There is no other food than what is set before me

3 ‘Give me some of them said Usasti. The driver gave them to him and said, ‘Here is drink at hand, if you please 1 ‘Then I shall be drinking what is defiled said Usasti.

4 ‘Are not these beans also defiled ‘Unless I ate them, I would surely not have survived said Usasti, ‘but drinking is at my option

5 Usasti, after he had eaten, brought the remainder to his wife. She had already obtained her food by alms; so after receiving it she kept it by.

6 Next morning while leaving the bed he said, ‘Alas, if I could get a little of food, I could earn a little wealth. There a king is going to institute a sacrifice; he would appoint me to all the priestly offices

7 His wife said to him, ‘Well, lord, here are the beans (given by you). Having eaten them he went off to that sacrifice which was being performed.

8 Seeing the singing priests seated there, he sat down near the singers in the place for singing the Stotras. And then he addressed the Prastotir priest.

9 ‘O Prastotir, if you sing the Prastava without knowing the deity that belongs to the Prastava, your head will fall down

10 In the same manner he addressed the Udgatir priest, O Udgatir, if you sing the Udgitha without knowing the deity that belongs to the Udgitha, your head will fall down

11 In the same manner he addressed the Pratihartir priest, ‘O Pratihartir, if you sing the Pratihara without knowing the deity that belongs to the Pratihara, your head will fall down Then they all sat down silently suspending their duties.

KHANDA 11

1 Then the principal of the sacrifice said to him, I should like to know you, revered sir, ‘I am Chakrayana Usasti said he.

2 He said, ‘I searched for you, revered sir, for all these priestly offices, but not finding you, sir, I have chosen others.

3 ‘Revered sir, you yourself take up all the priestly offices for me ‘Be it so; then, let these same priests sing the hymns, being permitted by me. But you should give me as much wealth as you give them. ‘Very well said the sacrificer.

4 Then the Prastotir priest approached him and said, ‘Revered sir, you said to me ‘O Prastotir, if you sing the Prastava without knowing the deity that belongs to the Prastava, your head will fall down". Which is that deity

5 Prana‘ said Usasti, ‘all these movable and immovable beings merge in Prana (during dissolution) and rise out of Prana (during creation). This is the deity that belongs to the Prastava. If you sang the Prastava without knowing him, after your having been warned thus by me, your head would have fallen down.

6 Then the Udgatir priest approached him and said, ‘Revered sir, you said to me ‘O Udgatir, if you sing the Udgitha without knowing the deity that belongs to the Udgitha, your head will fall down". Which is that deity

7 ‘The sun said Usasti, ‘all these movable and immovable sing the praise of the sun when he has come up. This is the deity that belongs to the Udgitha. If you sang the Udgitha without knowing him, after your having been warned thus by me, your head would have fallen down.

8 Then the Pratihartir priest approached him and said, ‘Revered sir, you said to me ‘O Pratihartir, if you sing the Pratihara without knowing the deity that belongs to the Pratihara, your head will fall down". Which is that deity

9 Food‘ said Usasti, ‘all these movable and immovable beings live by partaking of food only. This is the deity that belongs to the Pratihara. If you sang the Pratihara without knowing him, after your having been warned thus by me, your head would have fallen down.

KHANDA 12

1 Therefore next begins the Udgitha seen by the dogs. Once Dalbhya Baka, called also Maitreya Glava, went out (of the Village) for the study of the Vedas.

2 Before him a white dog appeared and other dogs gathered around it and said, ‘Revered sir, please obtain food for us by singing; we are hungry.

3 The white dog said to them, ‘Come to me over here tomorrow morning. (The sage named) Dalbhya Baka and Maitreya Glava kept watch there for them.

4 Just as those who recite the Stotras singing the Bahispavamana hymn move along clasping one another s hand, even so did the dogs move along. Then they sat down and began to pronounce ‘him

5 Aum‘, let us eat Aum, let us drink Aum, may the (sun who is) Deva, Varuna, Prajapati and Savitir bring us food here. O Lord of food, bring food here, yea bring it, Aum

KHANDA 13

1 Verily, this world is the syllable ‘hau (which is a Stobha), the air is the syllable ‘hai the moon is the syllable ‘atha the self is the syllable ‘iha and the fire is the syllable ‘I

2 The sun is the syllable ‘u (which is a Stobha), invocation is the syllable ‘e the Visvadevas are the syllable ‘auhoyi Prajapati is the syllable ‘him Prana is the Stobha ‘svara food is the Stobha ‘ya and Virat is the Stobha ‘vak

3 The undefinable and variable thirteenth Stobha is the syllable ‘hum

4 For him, speech yields the milk, which is the benefit of speech; and he becomes richin food and an eater of food, who thus knows this sacred doctrine of the Samans yea, knows the sacred doctrine of the Samans.

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