U Brhar4

Created by Jijith Nadumuri at 19 Oct 2011 13:47 and updated at 19 Oct 2011 13:58

BRIHADARANYAKA UPANISHAD

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

CHAPTER 4

KHANDA 1

1 Aum. Janaka, Emperor of Videha, took his seat, when there came Yajnavalkya. Janaka said to him, Yajnavalkya, what has brought you here To have some animals, or to hear some subtle questions asked Both, O Emperor said Yajnavalkya.

2 Let me hear what any one of your teachers may have told you Jitvan, the son of Silina, has told me that the organ of speech (fire) is Brahman As one who has a mother, a father and a teacher should say, so has the son of Silina said this that the organ of speech is Brahman, for what can a person have who cannot speak? But did he tell you about its abode (body) and support? No, he did not This Brahman is only one footed, O Emperor Then you tell us, Yajnavalkya The organ of speech is its abode, and the ether (the Undifferentiated) its support. It should be meditated upon as intelligence What is intelligence, Yajnavalkya The organ of speech itself, O Emperor said Yajnavalkya, through the organ of speech, O Emperor, friend is known; The Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, Sama Veda, Atharvangirasa, Vedic() history, mythology, arts, Upanishads, verses, aphorisms, elucidations and explanations, (the effects of) sacrifices, (of) offering oblations in the fire and (of) giving food and drink, this world and the next, and all beings are known through the organ of speech alone, O Emperor. The organ of speech, O Emperor, is the supreme Brahman. The organ of speech never leaves him who, knowing thus, meditates upon it, all beings eagerly come to him, and being a Deva, he attains the Devas. I give you a thousand cows with a bull like an elephant said Emperor Janaka. Yajnavalkya replied, My father was of opinion that one should not accept (wealth) from a disciple
out fully instructing him

3 Let me hear whatever any one may have told you Udanka, the son of Sulba, has told me that the vital force Vayu() is Brahman As one who has a mother, a father and a teacher should say, so has the son of Sulba said this that the vital force is Brahman, for what can a person have who does not live But did he tell you about its abode (body) and support No, he did not This Brahman is only one footed, O Emperor Then you tell us, Yajnavalkya The vital force is its abode, and the ether (the Undifferentiated) its support. It should be meditated upon as dear What is dearness, Yajnavalkya The vital force itself, O Emperor said Yajnavalkya; for the sake of the vital force, O Emperor, a man performs sacrifices for one for whom they should not be performed, and accepts gifts one from whom they should not be accepted, and it is for the sake of the vital force, O Emperor, that one runs the risk of one s life in any quarter one may go to. The vital force, O Emperor, is the Supreme Brahman. The vital force never leaves him who, knowing thus, meditates upon it, all beings eagerly come to him, and being a Deva, he attains the Devas I give you a thousand cows with a bull like an elephant said Emperor Janaka. Yajnavalkya replied, My father was of opinion that one should not accept (wealth) from a disciple without fully instructing him

4 Let me hear whatever any one may have told you Barku, the son of Vrsna, has told me that the eye Sun() is Brahman As one who has a mother, a father and a teacher should say, so has the son of Vrsna said this that the eye is Brahman. For what can a person have who cannot see But did he tell you about its abode (body) and support No, he did not This Brahman is only one footed, O Emperor Then you tell us, Yajnavalkya The eye is its abode, and the ether (the Undifferentiated) its support. It should be meditated upon as truth What is truth, Yajnavalkya? The eye itself, O Emperor said Yajnavalkya; if a person, O Emperor, says to one who has seen with his eyes, "Have you seen and the latter answers, "Yes, I have", then it is true. The eye, O Emperor, is the Supreme Brahman. The eye never leaves him who, knowing thus, meditates upon it; all beings eagerly come to him; and being a Deva, he attains the Devas I give you a thousand cows with a bull like an elephant said Emperor Janaka. Yajnavalkya replied, My father was of opinion that one should not accept (wealth) from a disciple without fully instructing him

5 Let me hear whatever any one may have told you Gardabhivipita, of the line of Bharadvaja, has told me that the ear (the quarters) is Brahman As one who has a mother, a father and a teacher should say, so has the descendant of Bharadvaja said this that the ear is Brahman. For what can a person have who cannot hear But did he tell you about its abode (body) and support No, he did not This Brahman is only one footed, O Emperor Then you tell us, Yajnavalkya The ear is its abode, and the ether (the Undifferentiated) its support. It should be meditated upon as infinite What is infinity, Yajnavalkya The quarters themselves, O Emperor said Yajnavalkya; therefore, O Emperor, to whatever direction one may go, one never reaches its end. Hence() the quarters are infinite. The quarters, O Emperor, are the ear, and the ear, O Emperor, is the Supreme Brahman. The ear never leaves him who, knowing thus, meditates upon it; all beings eagerly come to him; and being a Deva, he attains the Devas I give you a thousand cows with a bull like an elephant said Emperor Janaka. Yajnavalkya replied, My father was of opinion that one should not accept (wealth) from a disciple without fully instructing him

6 Let me hear whatever any one may have told you Satyakama, the son of Jabala, has told me that the Manas (here, the moon) is Brahman As one who has a mother, a father and a teacher should say, so has the son of Jabala said this that the Manas is Brahman. For what can a person have without the Manas But did he tell you about its abode (body) and support No, he did not This Brahman is only one footed, O Emperor Then you tell us, Yajnavalkya The Manas is its abode, and the ether (the Undifferentiated) its support. It should be meditated upon as bliss What is bliss, Yajnavalkya The manas itself, O Emperor said Yajnavalkya; with the Manas, O Emperor, a man (fancies and) woos a Woman. A son resembling him is born of her, and he is the cause of bliss. The Manas, O Emperor, is the Supreme Brahman. The Manas never leaves him who, knowing thus, meditates upon it; all beings eagerly come to him; and being a Deva, he attains the Devas I give you a thousand cows with a bull like an elephant said Emperor Janaka. Yajnavalkya replied, My father was of opinion that one should not accept (wealth) from a disciple without fully instructing him

7 Let me hear whatever any one may have told you Vidagdha, the son of Sakala, has told me that the heart (mind, here, Prajapati is Brahman As one who has a mother, a father and a teacher should say, so has the son of Sakala said this that the heart is Brahman. For what can a person have without the heart But did he tell you about its abode (body) and support No, he did not This Brahman is only one footed, O Emperor Then you tell us, Yajnavalkya The heart is its abode, and the ether (the Undifferentiated) its support. It should be meditated upon as stability What is stability, Yajnavalkya The heart itself, O Emperor said Yajnavalkya; the heart, O Emperor, is the abode of all beings, and the heart, O Emperor, is the support of all beings; on the heart, O Emperor, all beings rest; the heart, O Emperor, is the Supreme Brahman. The heart never leaves him who, knowing thus, meditates upon it; all beings eagerly come to him; and being a Deva, he attains the Devas I give you a thousand cows with a bull like an elephant said Emperor Janaka. Yajnavalkya replied, My father was of opinion that one should not accept (wealth) from a disciple without fully instructing him

KHANDA 2

1 Janaka, Emperor of Videha, rose from his lounge and approaching Yajnavalkya said, Salutations to you, Yajnavalkya, please instruct me Yajnavalkya replied, As one wishing to go a long distance, O Emperor, should secure a Chariot or a boat, so have you fully equipped your mind with so many secret names (of Brahman). You are likewise respected and wealthy, and you have studied the Vedas and heard the Upanishads; (but) where will you go when you are separated from this body I do not know, sir, where I shall go Then I will tell you where you will go Tell me, sir

2 This being who is in the right eye is named Indha. Though he is Indha, he is indirectly called Indra, for the Devas have a fondness, as it were, for indirect names, and hate to be called directly.

3 The human form that is in the left eye is his Wife, Viraj (matter). The space that is within the heart is their place of union. Their food is the lump of blood (the finest essence of what we eat) in the heart. Their wrap is the net like structure in the heart. Their road for moving is the nerve that goes upward from the heart; it is like a hair split into a thousand parts. In this body there are nerves called Hita, which are placed in the heart. Through these the essence of our food passes as it moves on. Therefore the subtle body has finer food than the gross body.

4 Of the sage (who is identified with the vital force), the east is the eastern vital force, the south the southern vital force, the west the western vital force, the north the northern vital force, the direction above the upper vital force, the direction below the nether vital force, and all the quarters the different vital forces. This self is That which has been described as Not this, Not this It is imperceptible, for It is never perceived; undecaying, for It never decays; unattached, for It is never attached; unfettered It never feels pain, and never suffers injury. You have attained That which is free from fear, O Janaka said Yajnavalkya. Revered Yajnavalkya said Emperor Janaka, may That which is free from fear be yours, for you have made That which is free from fear known to us. Salutations to you Here is this (empire of) Videha, as well as myself at your service

KHANDA 3

1 Yajnavalkya went to Janaka, Emperor of Videha. He thought he would not say anything. Now Janaka and Yajnavalkya had once talked on the Agnihotra, and Yajnavalkya had offered him a boon. He had begged the liberty of asking any questions he liked; and Yajnavalkya had granted him the boon. So it was the e who first asked him.

2 Yajnavalkya, what serves as the light for a man The light of the Sun, O Emperor said Yajnavalkya; it is through the light of the Sun that he sits, goes out, works and returns It is just so, Yajnavalkya

3 When the Sun has set, Yajnavalkya, what exactly serves as the light for a man The Moon serves as his light. It is through the light of the Moon that he sits, goes out, works and returns It is just so, Yajnavalkya

4 When the Sun and the Moon have set, Yajnavalkya, what exactly serves as the light for a man The fire serves as his light. It is through the fire that he sits, goes out, works and returns It is just so, Yajnavalkya

5 When the Sun and the Moon have both set, and the fire has gone out, Yajnavalkya, what exactly serves as the light for a man Speech (sound) serves as his light. It is through the light of speech that he sits, goes out, works and returns. Therefore, O Emperor, even when one s own hand is not clearly visible, if a sound is uttered, one manages to go there. It is just so, Yajnavalkya

6 When the Sun and the Moon have both set, the fire has gone out, and speech has stopped, Yajnavalkya, what exactly serves as the light for a man The self serves as his light. It is through the light of the self that he sits, goes out, works and returns. It is just so, Yajnavalkya

7 Which is the self This infinite entity Purusha() that is identified with the intellect and is in the midst of the organs, the (self effulgent) light within the heart (intellect). Assuming the likeness (of the intellect), it moves between the two worlds; it thinks, as it were, and shakes, as it were. Being identified with dream, it transcends this world the forms of death (ignorance etc.).

8 That man, when he is born, or attains a body, is connected with evils (the body and organs); and when he dies, or leaves the body, he discards those evils.

9 That man only two abodes, this and the next world. The dream state, which is the third, is at the junction (of the two). Staying at that junction, he surveys the two abodes, this and the next world. Whatever outfit he may have for the next world, providing himself with that he sees both evils (sufferings) and joys. When he dreams, he takes away a little of (the impressions of) this all embracing world (the waking state), himself puts the body aside and himself creates (a dream body in its place), revealing his own lustre by his own light and dreams. In this state the man himself becomes the light.

10 There are no Chariots, nor animals to be yoked to them, nor roads there, but he creates the Chariots, the animals and the roads. There are no pleasures, joys, or delights there, but he creates the pleasures, joys and delights. There are no pools, tanks, or rivers there, but he creates the pools, tanks and rivers. For he is the agent.

11 Regarding this there are the following pithy verses The radiant infinite being Purusha() who moves alone, puts the body aside in the dream state, and remaining awake himself and taking the shining functions of the organs with him, watches those that are asleep. Again he comes to the waking state.

12 The radiant infinite being who is immortal and moves alone, preserves the unclean nest (the body) with the help of the vital force, and roams out of the nest. Himself immortal, he goes wherever he likes.

13 In the dream world, the shining one, attaining higher and lower states, puts forth innumerable forms. He seems to be enjoying himself in the company of Women, or laughing, or even seeing frightful things.

14 All see his sport, but none sees him They say, Do not wake him up suddenly If he does not find the right organ, the body becomes difficult to doctor. Others, however, say that the dream state of a man is nothing but the waking state, because he sees in dream only those things that he sees in the waking state. (This is wrong) In the dream state the man himself becomes the light. I give you a thousand (cows), sir. Please instruct me further about liberation

15 After enjoying himself and roaming, and merely seeing (the result of) good and evil (in dream), he (stays) in a state of profound sleep, and comes back in the inverse order to his former condition, the dream state. He is untouched by whatever he sees in that state, for this infinite being is unattached. It is just so, Yajnavalkya. I give you a thousand (cows), sir. Please instruct me further about liberation itself.

16 After enjoying himself and roaming in the dream state, and merely seeing (the results of) good and evil, he comes back in the inverse order to his former condition, the waking state. He is untouched by whatever he sees in that state, for this infinite being is unattached. It is just so, Yajnavalkya. I give you a thousand (cows), sir. Please instruct me further about liberation itself.

17 After enjoying himself and roaming in the waking state, and merely seeing (the result of) good and evil, he comes back in the inverse order to his former condition, the dream state (or that of profound sleep).

18 As a great fish swims alternately to both the banks (of a river), eastern and western, so does this infinite being move to both these states, the dream and waking states.

19 As a hawk or a falcon flying in the Sky becomes tired, and stretching its wings, is bound for its nest, so does this infinite being run for this state, where, falling asleep, he craves no desire and sees no dream.

20 In him are those nerves called Hita, which are as fine as a hair split into a thousand parts, and filled with white, blue, brown, green and red (serums). (They are the seat of the subtle body, in which impressions are stored). Now when (he feels) as if he were being killed or overpowered, or being pursued by an elephant, or falling into a pit, (in short) conjures up at the time through ignorance whatever terrible things he has experienced in the waking state, (that is the dream state). And when (he becomes) a Deva, as it were, or a king, as it were, thinks, This (universe) is myself, who am all that is his highest state.

21 That is his form beyond desires, free from evils and fearless. As a man, fully embraced by his beloved Wife, does not know anything at all, either external or internal, so does this infinite being (self), fully embraced by the Supreme Self, not know anything at all, either external or internal. That is his form in which all objects of desire have been attained and are but the self, and which is free from desire and devoid of grief.

22 In this state a father is no father, a mother no mother, worlds no worlds, the Devas no Devas, the Vedas no Vedas. In this state a thief is no thief, the killer of a noble Brahmana no killer, a Chandala no Chandala, a Pulkasa no Pulkasa, a monk no monk, a hermit no hermit. (This form of his) is untouched by good work and untouched by evil work, for he is then beyond all the woes of his heart (intellect).

23 That it does not see in that state is because, though seeing then, it does not see; for the vision of the witness can never be lost, because it is imperishable. But there is not that second thing separate from it which it can see.

24 That it does not smell in that state is because, though smelling then, it does not smell; for the smeller s function of smelling can never be lost, because it is imperishable. But there is not that second thing separate from it which it can smell.

25 That it does not taste in that state is because, though tasting then, it does not taste; for the taster s function of tasting can never be lost, because it is imperishable. But there is not that second thing separate from it which it can taste.

26 That it does not speak in that state is because, though speaking then, it does not speak; for the speaker s function of speaking can never be lost, because it is imperishable. But there is not that second thing separate from it which it can speak.

27 That it does not hear in that state is because, though hearing then, it does not hear; for the listener s function of hearing can never be lost, because it is imperishable. But there is not that second thing separate from it which it can hear.

28 That it does not think in that state is because, though thinking then, it does not think; for the thinker s function of thinking can never be lost, because it is imperishable. But there is not that second thing separate from it which it can think.

29 That it does not touch in that state is because, though touching then, it does not touch; for the toucher s function of touching can never be lost, because it is imperishable. But there is not that second thing separate from it which it can touch.

30 That it does not know in that state is because, though knowing then, it does not know; for the knower s function of knowing can never be lost, because it is imperishable. But there is not that second thing separate from it which it can know.

31 When there is something else, as it were, then one can see something, one can smell something, one can taste something, one can speak something, one can hear something, one can think something, one can touch something, or one can know something.

32 It becomes (transparent) like water, one, the witness, and without a second. This is the sphere )(state) of Brahman, O Emperor. Thus did Yajnavalkya instruct Janaka This is its supreme attainment, this is its supreme glory, this is its highest world, this is its supreme bliss. On a particle of this very bliss other beings live.

33 He who is perfect of physique and prosperous among men, the ruler of others, and most lavishly supplied with all human enjoyments, represents greatest joy among men. This human joy multiplied a hundred times makes one unit of joy for the Pitris who have won that world of theirs. The joy of these Pitris who have won that world multiplied a hundred times makes one unit joy in the world of the Gandharvas. This joy in the world of the Gandharvas multiplied a hundred times makes one unit of joy for the Devas by action those who have attained their godhead by their actions. This joy of the Devas by action multiplied a hundred times makes one unit of joy for the Devas by birth, as also of one who is versed in the Vedas, sinless and free from desire. This joy of the Devas by birth multiplied a hundred times makes one unit of joy in the world of Prajapati Viraj(), as well as one who is versed in the Vedas, sinless and free from desire. This joy in the world of Prajapati multiplied a hundred times makes one unit of joy in the world of Brahman Hiranyagarbha(), as well as of one who is versed in the Vedas, sinless and free from desire. This indeed is the supreme bliss. This is the state of Brahman, O Emperor, said Yajnavalkya. I give you a thousand (cows), sir. Please instruct me further about liberation itself At this Yajnavalkya was afraid that the intelligent Emperor was constraining him to finish with all his conclusions.

34 After enjoying himself and roaming in the dream state, and merely seeing the effects of merits and demerits, he comes back, in the inverse order, to his former condition, the waking state.

35 Just as a cart, heavily loaded, goes on rumbling, so does the self that is in the body, being presided over by the Supreme Self, go making noises, when breathing becomes difficult.

36 When this (body) becomes thin is emaciated through old age or disease then, as a mango, or a fig, or a fruit of the Peepul tree is detached from its stalk, so does this infinite being, completely detaching himself from the parts of the body, again go, in the same way that he came, to particular bodies, for the unfoldment of his vital force.

37 Just as when a king is coming, the Ugras set against particular offences, the Sutas and the leaders of the village wait for him with varieties of food and drink and mansions ready, saying, Here he comes, here he comes so for the person who knows about the results of his work, all the elements wait saying, Here comes Brahman, here he comes

38 Just as when the king wishes to depart, the Ugras set against particular offences, the Sutas and the leaders of the village approach him, so do all the organs approach the departing man at the time of death, when breathing becomes difficult.

KHANDA 4

1 When this self becomes weak and senseless, as it were, the organs come to it. Completely withdrawing these particles of light, it comes to the heart. When the presiding deity of the eye turns back from all sides, the man fails to notice colour.

2 (The eye) becomes united (with the subtle body); then people say, He does not see (The nose) becomes united; then they say, He does not smell (The tongue) becomes united; then they say, He does not taste (The vocal Organ) becomes united; then they say, He does not speak (The ear) becomes united; then they say, He does not hear (The Manas) becomes united; then they say, He does not think (The skin) becomes united; then they say, He does not touch (The intellect) becomes united; then they say, He does not know The top of the heart brightens. Through that brightened top the self departs, either through the eye, or through the head, or through any other part of the body. When it departs, the vital force follows; when the vital force departs, all the organs follow. Then the self has particular consciousness, and goes to the body which is related to that consciousness. It is followed by knowledge, work and past experience.

3 Just as a leech supported on a straw goes to the end of it, takes hold of another support and contracts itself, so does the self throw this body aside make it senseless take hold of another support, and contract itself.

4 Just as a goldsmith takes apart a little quantity of gold and fashions another a newer and better form, so does the self throw this body away, or make it senseless, and make another a newer and better form suited to the Pitris Manes() or the Gandharvas, or the Devas, or Viraj, or Hiranyagarbha, or other beings.

5 That self is indeed Brahman, as also identified with the intellect, the Manas and the vital force, with the eyes and ears, with Earth, water, air and the ether, with fire, and what is other than fire, with desire and the absence of desire, with anger and the absence of anger, with righteousness and unrighteousness, with everything –identified, in fact, with this (what is perceived) and with that (what is inferred). As it does and acts, so it becomes; by doing good it becomes good, and by doing evil it becomes evil it becomes virtuous through good acts and vicious through evil acts. Others, however, say, The self is identified with desire alone. What it desires, it resolves; what it resolves, it works out; and what it works out, it attains.

6 Regarding this there is the following pithy verse Being attached he, together with the work, attains that result to which his subtle body or mind is attached. Exhausting the results of whatever work he did in this life, he returns from that world to this for (fresh) work Thus does the man who desires (transmigrate). But the man who does not desire (never transmigrates). Of him who is without desires, who is free from desires, the objects of whose desire have been attained, and to whom all objects of desire are but the Self the organs do not depart. Being but Brahman, he is merged in Brahman.

7 Regarding this there is this pithy verse When all the desires that dwell in his heart (mind) are gone, then he, having been mortal, becomes immortal, and attains Brahman in this very body Just as the lifeless Slough of a snake is cast off and lies in the ant hill, so does this body lie. Then the self becomes disembodied and immortal, (becomes) the Prana (Supreme Self), Brahman, the Light. I give you a thousand (cows), sir said Janaka, Emperor of Videha.

8 Regarding this there are the following pithy verses the subtle, extensive, ancient way has touched (been reached by) me. (Nay) I have realised it myself. Through that sages the knowers of Brahman (also) go to the Heavenly sphere (liberation) after the fall of this body, being freed (even while living).

9 Some speak of it as white, others as blue, grey, green, or red. This path is realised by a Brahmana (knower of Brahman). Any other knower of Brahman who has done good deeds and is identified with the Supreme Light, (also) treads this path.

10 Into blinding darkness (ignorance) enter those who worship ignorance (rites). Into greater darkness, as it were, than that enter those who are devoted to knowledge (the ceremonial portion of the Vedas).

11 Miserable are those worlds enveloped by (that) blinding darkness (ignorance). To them, after death, go those people who are ignorant and unwise.

12 If a man knows the Self as I am this then desiring what and for whose sake will he suffer in the wake of the body

13 He who has realised and intimately known the Self that has entered this perilous and inaccessible place (the body), is the maker of the universe, for he is the maker of all, (all is) his Self, and he again is indeed the Self (of all).

14 Being in this very body we have somehow known that Brahman(). If not, (I should have been) ignorant, (and) great destruction (would have taken place). Those who know It become immortal, while others attain misery alone.

15 When a man after (receiving instructions from a teacher) directly realises this effulgent Self, the Lord of all that has been and will be, he no longer wishes to hide himself from it.

16 Below which the year with its days rotates, upon that immortal Light of all lights the Devas meditate as longevity.

17 That in which the five groups of five and the (subtle) ether are placed, that very Atman I regard as the immortal Brahman. Knowing Brahman() I am immortal.

18 Those who have known the Vital Force of the vital force, the Eye of the eye, the Ear of the ear, and the Mind of the mind, have realised the ancient, primordial Brahman.

19 Through the mind alone (It) is to be realised. There is no difference whatsoever in It. He goes from death to death, who sees difference, as it were, in It.

20 It should be realised in one form only, (for) It is unknowable and eternal. The Self is taintless, beyond the (subtle) ether, birthless, infinite and constant.

21 The intelligent aspirant after Brahman, knowing about this alone, should attain intuitive knowledge. (He) should not think of too many words, for it is particularly fatiguing to the organ of speech.

22 That great, birthless Self which is identified with the intellect and is in the midst of the organs, lies in the ether that is within the heart. It is the controller of all, the lord of all, the ruler of all. It does not grow better through good work nor worse through bad work. It is the lord of all, It is the ruler of all beings, It is the protector of all beings. It is the bank that serves as the boundary to keep the different worlds apart. The Brahmanas seek to know It through the study of the Vedas, sacrifices, charity, and austerity consisting in a dispassionate enjoyment of sense objects. Knowing It alone, one becomes a sage. Desiring this world (the Self) alone, monks renounce their homes. This is (the reason for it); The ancient sages, it is said, did not desire children (thinking), What shall we achieve through children, we who have attained this Self, this world (result). They, it is said, renounced their desire for sons, for wealth and for the worlds, and lived a mendicant s life. That which is the desire for sons is the desire for wealth, and that which is the desire for wealth is the desire for worlds, for both these are but desires. This self is That which has been described as Not this, Not this It is imperceptible, for It is never perceived; undecaying, for It never decays; unattached, for It is never attached; unfettered It never feels pain, and never suffers injury. (it is but proper) that the sage is never overtaken by these two thoughts, I did
an evil act for this I did a good act for this He conquers both of them. Things done or not done do not trouble him.

23 This has been expressed by the following hymn This is the eternal glory of a knower of Brahman it neither increases nor decreases through work. (Therefore) one should know the nature of that alone. Knowing it one is not touched by evil action. Therefore he who knows it as such becomes self controlled, calm, withdrawn into himself, enduring and concentrated, and sees the self in his own self (body); he sees all as the Self. Evil does not overtake him, but he transcends all evil. Evil does not trouble him, (but) he consumes all evil. He becomes sinless, taintless, free from doubts, and a Brahmana (knower of Brahman). This is the world of Brahman, O Emperor, and you have attained it said Yajnavalkya. I give you sir, the empire of Videha, and myself too with it, to wait upon you

24 That great, birthless Self is the eater of food and the giver of wealth (the fruits of one s work). He who knows It as such receives wealth (those fruits).

25 That great, birthless Self is undecaying, immortal, undying, fearless and Brahman (infinite). Brahman is indeed fearless. He who knows It as such certainly becomes the fearless Brahman.

KHANDA 5

1 Now Yajnavalkya had two wives, Maitreyi and Katyayani. Of these Maitreyi used to discuss Brahman, (while) Katyayani had then only an essentially feminine outlook. One day Yajnavalkya, with a view to embracing life

2 O Maitreyi, my dear said Yajnavalkya, I am going to renounce this life for monasticism. Allow me to finish between you and Katyayani

3 Thereupon Maitreyi said, Sir, if indeed this whole Earth full of wealth be mine, shall I be immortal through that, or not No replied Yajnavalkya, your life will be just like that of people who possess plenty of things, but there is no hope of immortality through wealth.

4 Then Maitreyi said, What shall I do with that which will not make me immortal Tell me, sir, of that alone which you know (to be the only means of immortality).

5 Yajnavalkya said, My dear, you have been my beloved (even before), and you have magnified what is after my heart. If you wish, my dear, I will explain it to you. As I explain it, meditate (upon its meaning).

6 He said: It is not for the sake of the husband, my dear, that he is loved, but for one s own sake that he is loved. It is not for the sake of the Wife, my dear, that she is loved, but for one s own sake that she is loved. It is not for the sake of the sons, my dear, that they are loved, but for one s own sake that they are loved. It is not for the sake of wealth, my dear, that it is loved, but for one s own sake that it is loved. It is not for the sake of the Brahmana, my dear, that he is loved, but for one s own sake that he is loved. It is not for the sake of the Kshatriya, my dear, that he is loved, but for one s own sake that he is loved. It is not for the sake of worlds, my dear, that they are loved, but for one s own sake that they are loved. It is not for the sake of the Devas, my dear, that they are loved, but for one s own sake that they are loved. It is not for the sake of beings, my dear, that they are loved, but for one s own sake that they are loved. It is not for the sake of all, my dear, that all is loved, but for one s own sake that it is loved. The Self, my dear Maitreyi, should be realised should be heard of, reflected on and meditated upon. When the Self, my dear, is realised by being heard of, reflected on and meditated upon, all this is known.

7 The Brahmana ousts (slights) one who knows him as different from the Self. The Kshatriya ousts one who knows him as different from the Self. Worlds oust one who knows them as different from the Self. The Devas oust one who knows them as different from the Self. The Vedas oust one who knows them as different from the Self. Beings oust one who knows them as different from the Self. All ousts one who knows it as different from the Self. This Brahmana, this Kshatriya, these worlds, these Devas, these Vedas, these beings and these all are this Self.

8 As, when a drum is beaten, one cannot distinguish its various particular notes, but they are included in the general note of the drum or in the general sound produced by different kinds of strokes.

9 As, when a conch is blown, one cannot distinguish its various particular notes, but they are included in the general note of the conch or in the general sound produced by different kinds of playing.

10 As, when a Vina is played, one cannot distinguish its various particular notes, but they are included in the general note of the Vina or in the general sound produced by different kinds of playing.

11 As from a fire kindled with wet faggot diverse kinds of smoke issue, even so, my dear, the Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, Sama Veda, Atharvangirasa, history, mythology, arts, Upanishads, pithy verses, aphorisms, elucidations, explanations, sacrifices, oblations in the fire, food, drink, this world, the next world and all beings are (like) the breath of this infinite Reality. They are like the breath of this (Supreme Self).

12 As the ocean is the one goal of all sorts of water, as the skin is the one goal of all kinds of touch, as the nostrils are the one goal of all odours, as the tongue is the one goal of all savours, as the eye is the one goal of all colours as the ear is the one goal of all sounds, as the Manas is the one goal of all deliberations, as the intellect is the one goal of all kinds of knowledge, as the hands are the one goal of all sort of work, as the organ of generation is the one goal of all kinds of enjoyment, as the anus is the one goal of all excretions, as the feet are the one goal of all kinds of walking, as the organ of speech is the one goal of all Vedas.

13 As a lump of salt is without interior or exterior, entire, and purely saline in taste, even so is the Self without interior or exterior, entire, and Pure Intelligence alone. (The Self) comes out (as a separate entity) from these elements, and (this separateness) is destroyed with them. After attaining (this oneness) it has no more consciousness. This is what I say, my dear. So said Yajnavalkya.

14 Maitreyi said, Just here you have led me into the midst of confusion, sir, I do not at all comprehend this He said, Certainly, I am not saying anything confusing. This self is indeed immutable and indestructible, my dear

15 Because when there is duality, as it were, then one sees something, one smells something, one tastes something, one speaks something, one hears something, one thinks something, one touches something, one knows something. (But) when to the knower of Brahman everything has become the Self, then what should one see and through what, what should one smell and through what, what should one taste and through what, what should one speak and through what, what should one hear and through what, what should one think and through what, what should one touch and through what, what should one know and through what Through what should one know that owing to which all this is known This self is That which has been described as Not this, Not this It is imperceptible, for It is never perceived; undecaying, for It never decays; unattached, for It is never attached; unfettered it never feels pain, and never suffers injury. Through what, O Maitreyi, should one know the Knower So you have got the instruction, Maitreyi. This much indeed is (the means of) immortality, my dear. Saying this Yajnavalkya left.

KHANDA 6

1 Now the line of teachers: Pautimasya (received it) from Gaupavana. Gaupavana from another Pautimasya. This Pautimasya from another Gaupavana. This Gaupavana from Kausika. Kausika from Kaundinya. Kaundinya from Sandilya. Sandilya from Kausika and Gautama. Gautama

2 From Agnivesya. Agnivesya from Sandilya and Anabhimlata. Anabhinlata from another of that name. He from a third Anabhimlata. This Anabhimlata from Gautama. Gautama from Saitava and Pracinayogya. They from Parasarya. Parasarya from Bharadvaja. He from Bharadvaja and Gautama. Gautama from another Bharatvaja. He from another Parasarya. Parasarya from Baijavapayana. He from Kausikayani. Kausikayani

3 From Ghrtakausika. Ghrtakausika from Parasaryayana. He from Parasarya. Parasarya from Jatukarnya. Jatukarnya from Asurayana and Yaska. Asurayana from Traivani. Traivani from Aupajandhani. He from Asuri. Asuri from Bharadvaja. Bharadvaja from Atreya. Atreya from Manti. Manti from Gautama. Gautama from another Gautama. He from Vatsya. Vatsya from Sandilya. Sandilya from Kaisorya Kapya. He from Kumaraharita. Kumaraharita from Galava. Galava from Vidarbhi kaundinya. He from Vatsanapat Babhrava. He from Pathin Saubhara. He from Ayasya Angirasa. He from Abhuti Tvastra. He from Visvarupa Tvastra. He from the Asvins. They from Dadhyac Atharvana. He from Atharvan Daiva. He from Mrtyu Pradhvamsana. He from Pradhvamsana. Pradhvamsana from Ekarsi. Ekarsi from Viprachitti. Viprachitti from Vyasri. Vyasti from Sanaru. Sanaru from Sanatana. Sanatana from Sanaga. Sanaga from Paramesthin Viraj(). He from Brahman (Hiranyabarbha). Brahman is self born. Salutation to Brahman.

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