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Created by Jijith Nadumuri at 19 Oct 2011 13:46 and updated at 19 Oct 2011 13:56

BRIHADARANYAKA UPANISHAD

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

CHAPTER 3

KHANDA 1

1 Aum. Janaka, Emperor of Videha, performed a sacrifice in which gifts were freely distributed. Vedic scholars from Kuru and Panchala were assembled there. Emperor Janaka of Videha had a desire to know, Which is the most erudite of these Vedic scholars He had a thousand cows confined in a pen, and on the horns of each cow were fixed ten Padas (of gold).

2 He said to them, Revered Brahmanas, let him who is the best Vedic scholar among you drive these cows (home). None of the Brahmanas dared. Then Yajnavalkya said to a pupil of his, Dear Samasravas, please drive these cows (home). He drove them. The Brahmanas were enraged. How does he dare to call himself the best Vedic scholar among us there was a Hotr of Emperor Janaka of Videha named Asvala. He now asked Yajnavalkya, Yajnavalkya, are you indeed the best Vedic scholar among us Yajnavalkya replied, I bow to the best Vedic scholar, I just want the cows Thereupon the Hotr Asvala determined to interrogate him.

3 Yajnavalkya said he, since all this is overtaken by death, and swayed by it, by what means does the sacrificer go beyond the clutches of death Through the organ of speech through fire, which is the (real) priest called Hotr. The sacrificer s organ of speech is the Hotr. This organ of speech is fire; this fire is the Hotr; this (fire) is liberation; this (liberation) is emancipation

4 Yajnavalkya said he, since all this is overtaken by day and night, and swayed by them, by what means does the sacrificer go beyond the clutches of day and night Through the eye through the Sun, which is the (real) priest called Adhvaryu. The eye of the sacrificer is the Adhvaryu. This eye is the Sun; this Sun is the Adhvaryu; this Sun() is liberation; this (liberation) is emancipation

5 Yajnavalkya said he, since all this is overtaken by the bright and dark fortnights, and swayed by them, by what means does the sacrificer go beyond the bright and dark fortnights Through the vital force through air, which is the (real) priest called Udgatir. The vital force of the sacrificer is the Udgatir. This vital force is air, and it is the Udgatir; this (air) is liberation; this (liberation) is emancipation.

6 Yajnavalkya said he, since the Sky is, as it were, without a support, through what support does the sacrificer go to Heaven Through the mind through the Moon, which is the (real) priest called Brahman. The mind of the sacrificer is the Brahman. This mind is the Moon; the Moon is the Brahman; this (moon) is liberation; this (liberation) is emancipation So far about the ways of emancipation; now about the meditations based on resemblance.

7 Yajnavalkya said he, with how many kinds of Rik will the Hotr do his part in this sacrifice to day With three kinds Which are those three The preliminary, the sacrificial, and the eulogistic hymns as the third What does he win through them All this that is living

8 Yajnavalkya said he, how many kinds of oblations will the Adhvaryu offer in this sacrifice to day Three Which are those three Those that blaze up on being offered, those that make a great noise, when offered, and those that sink on being offered What does he win through them? Through those that blaze up on being offered he wins the world of the Devas, for this world shines, as it were. Through those that make a great noise, when offered, he wins the world of the Pitris, for this world is full of uproar. And through those that sink on being offered, he wins the human world, for this world is lower.

9 Yajnavalkya said he, through how many Devas does this Brahman from the right protect the sacrifice to day Through one Which is that one The mind. The mind is indeed infinite, and infinite are the Visvadevas. Through this meditation he wins an infinite world

10 Yajnavalkya said he, how many classes of hymns the Udgatir chant in this sacrifice to day Three classes Which are those three The preliminary, the sacrificial, and the eulogistic hymns as the third Which are those that have reference to the body The Prana is the preliminary hymn, the Apana is the sacrificial hymn, and the Vyana is the eulogistic hymn What does he win through them Through the preliminary hymns he wins the Earth, through the sacrificial hymns he wins the Sky, and through the eulogistic hymns he wins Heaven Thereupon the Hotr Asvala kept silent.

KHANDA 2

1 Then Artabhaga, of the line of Jaratkaru, asked him. Yajnavalkya said he, how many are the Grahas, and how many are the Atigrahas There are eight Grahas and eight Atigrahas Which are those eight Grahas and eight Atigrahas

2 The Prana (nose) indeed is the Graha; it is controlled by the Atigraha, the Apana (odour), for one smells odours through the Apana (the air breathed in).

3 The organ of speech indeed is the graha; it is controlled by the Atigraha, name, for one utters names through the organ of speech.

4 The tongue indeed is the Graha; it is controlled by the Atigraha, taste, for one knows tastes through the tongue.

5 The eye indeed is the Graha; it is controlled by the Atigraha, colour, for one sees colours through the eye.

6 The ear indeed is the Graha; it is controlled by the Atigraha, sound, for one hears sounds through the ear.

7 The mind indeed is the Graha; it is controlled by the Atigraha, desire, for one wishes desires through the mind.

8 The hands indeed is the Graha; it is controlled by the Atigraha, work, for one does work through the hands.

9 The skin indeed is the Graha; it is controlled by the Atigraha, touch, for one feels touch through the skin. These are the eight Grahas and eight Atigrahas.

10 Yajnavalkya said he, since all this is the food of death, who is that Deva whose food is death Agni is death; it is the food of water. (One who knows thus) conquers further death

11 Yajnavalkya said he, when the (liberated) man dies, do his organs go up from him, or do they not No replied Yajnavalkya, (They) merge in him only. The body swells, is inflated, and in that state lies dead.

12 Yajnavalkya said he, when this man dies, what is it that does not leave him Name. The name indeed is infinite, and infinite are the Visvadevas. He (who knows thus) wins thereby a really infinite world

13 Yajnavalkya said he, when the vocal organ of a man who dies is merged in fire, the nose in air, the eye in the Sun, the mind in the Moon, the ear in the quarters, the body in the Earth, the ether of the heart in the external ether, the hair on the body in herbs, that on the head in trees, and the blood and the seed are deposited in water, where is then the man Give me your hand, dear Artabhaga, we will decide this between ourselves, we cannot do it in a crowded place. They went out and talked it over. What they mentioned there was only work, and what they praised there was also work alone. (Therefore) one indeed becomes good through good work and evil through evil work. Thereupon Artabhaga, of the line of Jaratkaru, kept silent.

KHANDA 3

1 Then Bhujyu, the grandson of Lahya, asked him. Yajnavalkya said he, we travelled in Madra as students, and we came to the house of Patanchala of the line of Kapi. His daughter was possessed by a Gandharva. We asked him, "Who are you He said, "I am Sudhanvan, of the line of Angiras". When we asked him about the limits of the world, we said to him, "Where were the descendants of Pariksit And I ask you, Yajnavalkya, where were the descendants of Pariksit (Tell me) where were the descendants of Pariksit

2 Yajnavalkya said, The Gandharva evidently told you that they went where the performers of the Horse sacrifice go And where do the performers of the Horse sacrifice go Thirty two times the space covered by the Sun s Chariot in a day makes this world; around it, covering twice the area, is the Earth; around the Earth, covering twice the area, is the ocean. Now, as is the edge of a razor, or the wing of a fly, so is there just that much opening at the junction (of the two halves of the cosmic shell). (Through that they go out.) Agni, in the form of a Falcon, delivered them to the Vayu; Vayu, the air, putting them in itself, took them where the (previous) performers of the Horse sacrifice were Thus did the Gandharva praise the air. Therefore the air is the diversity of individuals, and the air is the aggregate. He who knows it as such conquers further death. Thereupon Bhujyu, the grandson of Lahya, kept silent.

KHANDA 4

1 Then Usata, the son of Chakra, asked him. Yajnavalkya said he, explain to me the Brahman that is immediate and direct the self that is within all. This is your self that is within all Which is within all, Yajnavalkya That which breathes through the Prana is your self that is within all. That which moves downwards through the Apana is your self that is within all. That which pervades through the Vyana is your self that is within all. That which goes out through the Udana is your self that is within all. This is your self that is within all.

2 Usata, the son of Chakra, said, You have indicated it as one may say that a cow is such and such, or a Horse is such and such. Explain to me the Brahman that is immediate and direct the self that is within all This is your self that is within all Which is within all, Yajnavalkya You cannot see that which is the witness of vision; you cannot hear that which is the hearer of hearing; you cannot think that which is the thinker of thought; you cannot know that which is the knower of knowledge. This is your self that is within all; everything else but this is perishable. Thereupon Usata, the son of Chakra, kept silent.

KHANDA 5

1 Then Kahola, the son of Kusitaka, asked him, Yajnavalkya said he, explain to me the Brahman that is immediate and direct the self that is within all This is your self that is within all Which is within all, Yajnavalkya That which transcends hunger and thirst, grief, delusion, decay and death. Knowing this very Self the Brahmanas renounce the desire for sons, for wealth and for the worlds, and lead a mendicant s life. That which is the desire for sons is the desire for wealth, and that which is the desire for wealth is the desire for worlds, for both these are but desires. Therefore the knower of Brahman, having known all about scholarship, should try to live upon that strength which comes of knowledge; having known all about this strength and scholarship, he becomes meditative; having known all about both meditativeness and its opposite, he becomes a knower of Brahman. How does that knower of b behave Howsoever he may behave, he is just such. Except this, everything is perishable. Thereupon Kahola, the son of Kusitaka, kept silent.

KHANDA 6

1 Then Gargi, the daughter of Vacaknu, asked him, Yajnavalkya she said, if all this is pervaded by water, by what is water pervaded By air, O Gargi By what is air pervaded? By the Sky, O Gargi By what is the Sky pervaded By the world of the Gandharvas, O Gargi By what is the world of the Gandharvas pervaded By the Sun, O Gargi. By what is the Sun pervaded By the Moon, O Gargi. By what is the Moon pervaded By the Stars, O Gargi By what are the Stars pervaded By the world of the Devas, O Gargi By what is the world of the Devas pervaded By the world of Indra, O Gargi By what is the world of Indra pervaded? By the world of Viraj, O Gargi By what is the world of Viraj pervaded? By the world of Hiranyagarbha, O Gargi By what is the world of Hiranyagarbha pervaded He said, Do not, O Gargi, push your inquiry too far, lest your head should fall off. You are questioning about a deity that should not be reasoned about. Do not, O Gargi, push your inquiry too far. Thereupon Gargi, the daughter of Vacaknu, kept silent.

KHANDA 7

1 Then Uddalaka, the son of Aruna, asked him. Yajnavalkya said, in Madra we lived in the house of Patanchala Kapya (descendant of Kapi), studying the scriptures on sacrifices. His Wife was possessed by a Gandharva. We asked him who he was. He said, Kabandha", the son of Atharvan". He said to Patanchala Kapya and those who studied the scriptures on sacrifices, Hapya", do you know that Sutra by which this life, the next life and all beings are held together Patanchala Kapya said, "I do not know it, sir". The Gandharva said to him and the students, Kapya", do you know that Internal Ruler who controls this and the next life and all beings from within Patanchala Kapya said, "I do not know Him, sir". The Gandharva said to him and the students, "He who knows that Sutra and that Internal Ruler as above indeed knows Brahman, knows the worlds, knows the Devas, knows the Vedas, knows beings, knows the self, and knows everything". He explained it all to them. I know it. If you, Yajnavalkya, do not know that Sutra and that Internal Ruler, and still take away the cows that belong only to the knowers of Brahman, your head shall fall off I know, O Gautama, that Sutra and that Internal Ruler Any one can say, "I know, I know". Tell us what you know.

2 He said, Vayu, O Gautama, is that Sutra. Through this Sutra or Vayu this and the next life and all beings are held together. Therefore, O Gautama, when a man dies, they say that his limbs have been loosened, for they are held together, O Gautama, by the Sutra or Vayu. Quite so, Yajnavalkya. Now describe the Internal Ruler.

3 He who inhabits the Earth, but is within it, whom the Earth does not know, whose body is the Earth, and who controls the Earth from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

4 He who inhabits water, but is within it, whom water does not know, whose body is water, and who controls water from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

5 He who inhabits fire, but is within it, whom fire does not know, whose body is fire, and who controls fire from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

6 He who inhabits the Sky, but is within it, whom the Sky does not know, whose body is the Sky, and who controls the Sky from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

7 He who inhabits air, but is within it, whom air does not know, whose body is air, and who controls air from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

8 He who inhabits Heaven, but is within it, whom Heaven does not know, whose body is Heaven, and who controls Heaven from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

9 He who inhabits the Sun, but is within it, whom the Sun does not know, whose body is the Sun, and who controls the Sun from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

10 He who inhabits the quarters, but is within it, whom the quarters does not know, whose body is the quarters, and who controls the quarters from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

11 He who inhabits the Moon and Stars, but is within it, whom the Moon and Stars does not know, whose body is the Moon and Stars, and who controls the Moon and Stars from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

12 He who inhabits the ether, but is within it, whom the ether does not know, whose body is the ether, and who controls the ether from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

13 He who inhabits darkness, but is within it, whom darkness does not know, whose body is darkness, and who controls darkness from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

14 He who inhabits light, but is within it, whom light does not know, whose body is light, and who controls light from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self. This much with reference to the Devas. Now with reference to the beings.

15 He who inhabits all beings, but is within it, whom no being knows, whose body is all beings, and who controls all beings from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self. This much with reference to the beings. Now with reference to the body.

16 He who inhabits the nose, but is within it, whom the nose does not know, whose body is the nose, and who controls the nose from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

17 He who inhabits the organ of speech, but is within it, whom the organ of speech does not know, whose body is the organ of speech, and who controls the organ of speech from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

18 He who inhabits the eye, but is within it, whom the eye does not know, whose body is the eye, and who controls the eye from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

19 He who inhabits the ear, but is within it, whom the ear does not know, whose body is the ear, and who controls the ear from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

20 He who inhabits the mind Manas(), but is within it, whom the mind does not know, whose body is the mind, and who controls the mind from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

21 He who inhabits the skin, but is within it, whom the skin does not know, whose body is the skin, and who controls the skin from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

22 He who inhabits the intellect, but is within it, whom the intellect does not know, whose body is the intellect, and who controls the intellect from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

23 He who inhabits the organ of generation, but is within it, whom the organ of generation does not know, whose body is the organ of generation, and who controls the organ of generation from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self. He is never seen, but is the Witness; He is never heard, but is the Hearer; He is never thought, but is the Thinker; He is never known, but is the Knower. There is no other witness but Him, no other hearer but Him, no other thinker but Him, no other knower but Him. He is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self. Everything else but Him is mortal. Thereupon Uddalaka, the son of Aruna, kept silent.

KHANDA 8

1 Then the daughter of Vachaknu said, Revered Brahmans, I shall him two questions, Should he answer me those, none of you can ever beat him in describing Brahman. Ask, O Gargi

2 She said, I (shall ask) you (two questions). As a man of Banaras or the King of Videha, scion of a warlike dynasty, might string his unstrung bow and appear close by, carrying in his hand two bamboo tipped arrows highly painful to the enemy, even so, O Yajnavalkya, do I confront you with two questions. Answer me those Ask, O Gargi

3 She said, By what, O Yajnavalkya, is that pervaded which is above Heaven and below the Earth, which is this Heaven and Earth as well as between them, and which they say was, is and will be

4 He said, That, O Gargi, which is above Heaven and below the Earth, which is this Heaven and Earth as well as between them, and which they say was, is and will be, is pervaded by the Unmanifested ether.

5 She said, I bow to you, Yajnavalkya, who have fully answered this question of mine. Now be ready for the other question. Ask, O Gargi".

6 She said, By what, O Yajnavalkya, is that pervaded which is above Heaven and below the Earth, which is this Heaven and Earth as well as between them, and which they say was, is and will be

7 He said, That, O Gargi, which is above Heaven and below the Earth, which is this Heaven and Earth as well as between them, and which they say was, is and will be, is pervaded by the Unmanifested ether alone. By what is the Unmanifested ether pervaded?

8 He said: O Gargi, the knowers of Brahman say, this Immutable Brahman() is that. It is neither gross nor minute, neither short nor long, neither red colour nor oiliness, neither shadow nor darkness, neither air nor ether, unattached, neither savour nor odour, without eyes or ears, without the vocal organ or mind, non luminous, without the vital force or mouth, not a measure, and without interior or exterior. It does not eat anything, nor is It eaten by anybody.

9 Under the mighty rule of this Immutable, O Gargi, the Sun and Moon are held in their positions; under the mighty rule of this Immutable, O Gargi, Heaven and Earth maintain their positions; under the mighty rule of this Immutable, O Gargi, moments, Muhurtas, days and nights, fortnights, months, seasons and years are held in their respective places; under the mighty rule of this Immutable, O Gargi, some rivers flow eastward from the White Mountains, others flowing westward continue in that direction, and still others keep to their respective courses; under the mighty rule of this Immutable, O Gargi, men praise those that give, the Devas depend on the sacrificer, and the Pitris on independent offerings Darvihoma().

10 He, O Gargi, who in this world, without knowing this Immutable, offers oblations in the fire, performs sacrifices and undergoes austerities even for many thousand years, finds all such acts but perishable; he, O Gargi, who departs from this world without knowing this Immutable, is miserable. But he, O Gargi, who departs from this world after knowing this Immutable, is a knower of Brahman.

11 This Immutable, O Gargi, is never seen but is the Witness; It is never heard, but is the Hearer; It is never thought, but is the Thinker; It is never known, but is the Knower. There is no other witness but This, no other hearer but This, no other thinker but This, no other knower but This. By this Immutable, O Gargi, is the (Unmanifested) ether pervaded.

12 She said, Revered Brahmans, you should consider yourselves fortunate if you can get off from him through salutations. Never shall any of you beat him in describing Brahman Then the daughter of Vachaknu kept silent.

KHANDA 9

1 Then Vidagdha, the son of Sakala, asked him. How many Devas are there, Yajnavalkya Yajnavalkya decided it through this (group of Mantras known as) Nivid (saying), As many as are indicated in the Nivid of the Visvadevas three hundred and three, and three thousand and three Very well said Sakalya, how many Devas exactly are there, Yajnavalkya Thirty three Very well said the other, how many Devas exactly are there, Yajnavalkya six Very well said Sakalya, how many Devas exactly are there, Yajnavalkya Three Very well said the other, how many Devas exactly are there, Yajnavalkya Two Very well said Sakalya, how many Devas exactly are there, Yajnavalkya One and a half Very well said Sakalya, how many Devas exactly are there, Yajnavalkya One Very well said Sakalya, which are those three hundred and three and three thousand and three

2 Yajnavalkya said, these are but the manifestation of them, but there are only thirty three Devas. Which are those thirty three The eight Vasus, the eleven Rudras and the twelve Adityas these are thirty one and Indra and Prajapati make up the thirty three

3 Which are the Vasus Agni (fire), the Prithvi Earth(), Vayu (air), the Sky, the Sun, Heaven, the Moon and the Stars these are the Vasus, for in these all this is placed; therefore they are called Vasus.

4 Which are the Rudras The ten organs in the human body, with the mind as the eleventh. When they depart from this mortal body, they make (one s relatives) weep. Because they then make them weep, therefore they are called Rudras.

5 Which are the Adityas The twelve months (are parts) of a year; these are the Adityas, for they go taking all this with them. Because they go taking all this with them, therefore they are called Adityas.

6 Which is Indra, and which is Prajapati The cloud itself is Indra, and the sacrifice is Prajapati Which is the cloud Thunder (strength). Which is the sacrifice Animals

7 Which are the six Devas() Agni, the Earth, Vayu (air), the Sky, the Sun, and Heaven these are the six. Because all those Devas() are (comprised in) these six.

8 Which are the three Devas These three worlds alone, because in these all those Devas are comprised. Which are the two Devas Matter and the vital force. Which are the one and a half This (air) that blows.

9 Regarding this some say, Since the air blows as one substance, how can it be one and a half It is one and a half because through its presence all this attains surpassing glory Which is the one Deva The vital force Hiranyagarbha(); it is Brahman, which is called Tyat (that).

10 He who knows that being whose abode is the Earth, whose instrument of vision is fire, whose light is the Manas, and who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs, knows truly, O Yajnavalkya I do know that being of whom you speak who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs. It is the very being who is identified with the body. Go on, Sakalya. Who is his deity (cause) Nectar (chyle) said he.

11 He who knows that being whose abode is lust, whose instrument of vision is the intellect, whose light is the Manas, and who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs, knows truly, O Yajnavalkya I do know that being of whom you speak who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs. It is the very being who is identified with lust. Go on, Sakalya Who is his deity Women said he.

12 He who knows that being whose abode is colours, whose instrument of vision is the eye, whose light is the Manas, and who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs, knows truly, O Yajnavalkya I do know that being of whom you speak who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs. It is the very being who is in the Sun. Go on Sakalya Who is his deity Truth (the eye), said he.

13 He who knows that being whose abode is the ether, whose instrument of vision is the ear, whose light is the Manas, and who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs, knows truly, O Yajnavalkya I do know that being of whom you speak who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs. It is the very being who is identified with the ear and with the time of hearing. Go on, Sakalya Who is his deity The quarters said he.

14 He who knows that being whose abode is darkness, whose instrument of vision is the intellect, whose light is the Manas, and who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs, knows truly, O Yajnavalkya I do know that being of whom you speak who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs. It is the very being who is identified with shadow (ignorance). Go on, Sakalya Who is his deity? Death said he.

15 He who knows that being whose abode is (particular) colours, whose instrument of vision is the eye, whose light is the Manas, and who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs, knows truly, O Yajnavalkya I do know that being of whom you speak who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs. It is the very being who is in a looking glass. Go on, Sakalya Who is his deity The vital force said he.

16 He who knows that being whose abode is water, whose instrument of vision is the intellect, whose light is the Manas, and who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs, knows truly, O Yajnavalkya I do know that being of whom you speak who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs. It is the very being who is in water. Go on, Sakalya Who is his deity Varuna (rain) said he.

17 He who knows that being whose abode is the seed, whose instrument of vision is the intellect, whose light is the Manas, and who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs, knows truly, O Yajnavalkya I do know that being of whom you speak who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs. It is the very being who is identified with the son. Go on, Sakalya Who is his deity Prajapati (the father) said he.

18 Sakalya said Yajnavalkya, have these Vedic scholars made you their instrument for burning charcoals

19 Yajnavalkya said Sakalya, is it because you know Brahman that you have thus flouted these Vedic scholars of Kuru and Panchala I know the quarters with their deities and supports If you know the quarters with their deities and supports

20 What deity are you identified with in the east With the deity, Sun On what does the Sun rest On the eye On what does the eye rest On colours, for one sees colours with the eye On what do colours rest On the heart (mind) said Yajnavalkya, for one knows colours through the heart; it is on the heart that colours rest It is just so, Yajnavalkya

21 What deity are you identified with in the south With the deity, Yama (the god of justice) On what does Yama rest On the sacrifice On what does the sacrifice rest On the remuneration (of the priests). On what does the remuneration rest On faith, because whenever a man has faith, he gives remuneration to the priests; therefore it is on faith that the remuneration rests On what does faith rest On the heart said Yajnavalkya, for one knows faith through the heart; therefore it is on the heart that faith rests It is just so, Yajnavalkya

22 What deity are you identified with in the west With the deity, Varuna (the god of rain) On what does Varuna rest On water On what does water rest On the seed On what does the seed rest On the heart. Therefore do they say of a new born child closely resembles (his father), that he has sprung from (his father s) heart, as it were that he has been made out of (his father s) heart, as it were. Therefore it is on the heart that the seed rests It is just so, Yajnavalkya

23 What deity are you identified with in the north With the deity, Soma (the Moon and the creeper) On what does Soma rest On initiation On what does initiation rest On truth. Therefore do they say to one initiated, "Speak the truth"; for it is on truth that initiation rests On what does truth rest On the heart said Yajnavalkya, for one knows truth through the heart; therefore it is on the heart that truth rests It is just so, Yajnavalkya

24 What deity are you identified with in the fixed direction (above) With the deity, fire On what does fire rest On speech On what does speech rest On the heart On what does the heart rest

25 You ghost said Yajnavalkya, when you think the heart is elsewhere than in us, (then the body is dead). Should it be elsewhere than in us, dogs would eat this body, or birds tear it to pieces

26 On what do the body and the heart rest On the Prana On what does the Prana rest On the Apana. On what does the Apana rest On the Vyana. On what does the Vyana rest On the Udana On what does the Udana rest On the Samana This self is That which has been described as Not this, not this It is imperceptible, for it is never perceived; undecaying, for It never decays; unattached, for It is never attached; unfettered It never feels pain, and never suffers injury. These are the eight abodes, the eight instruments of vision, the eight deities and the eight beings. I ask you of that Being who is to be known only from the Upanishads, who definitely projects those beings and withdraws them into Himself, and who is at the same time transcendent. If you cannot clearly tell me of Him, your head shall fall off Sakalya did not know Him; his head fell off; and robbers snatched away his bones, mistaking them for something else.

27 Then he said, Revered Brahmanas, whichsoever amongst you wishes may interrogate me or all of you may. Or I shall question whichsoever amongst you wishes, or all of you The Brahmanas did not dare.

28(1) He asked them through these verses As a large tree, so indeed is a man. (This is) true. His hair is its leaves, his skin its outer bark.

28(2) It is from his skin that blood flows, and from the bark sap. Therefore when a man is wounded, blood flows, as sap from a tree is injured.

28(3) His flesh is its inner bark, and his tendons its innermost layer of bark; both are tough. His bones lie under, as does its wood; his marrow is comparable to its pith.

28(4) If a tree, after it is felled, springs again from its root in a newer form, from what root indeed does man spring forth after he is cut off by death

28(5) Do not say, From the seed (for) it is produced in a living man. A tree springs also from the seed; after it is dead it certainly springs again (from the seed as well).

28(6) If someone pulls out a tree with its root, it no more sprouts. From what root does a man spring forth after he is cut off by death

28(7) If you think he is ever born, I say, no, he is again born. Now who should again bring him forth Knowledge, Bliss, Brahman, the supreme goal of the dispenser of wealth as well as of him who has realised Brahman and lives in It.

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