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Created by Jijith Nadumuri at 19 Oct 2011 13:46 and updated at 19 Oct 2011 13:55

BRIHADARANYAKA UPANISHAD

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

CHAPTER 2

KHANDA 1

1 Aum. There was a man of the Garga family called Proud Balaki, who was a speaker. He said to Ajatasatru, the king of Benares, I will tell you about Brahman Ajatasatru said, For this proposal I give you a thousand (cows). People indeed rush saying Janaka", Janaka". (I too have some of his qualities.)

2 Gargya said, That being who is in the Sun, I meditate upon as Brahman Ajatasatru said, Please don t talk about him. I meditate upon him as all surpassing, as the head of all beings and as resplendent. He who meditates upon him as such becomes all surpassing, the head of all beings and resplendent.

3 Gargya said, that being who is in the Moon, I meditate upon as Brahman Ajatasatru said, "Please don t talk about him. I meditate upon him as the great, white robed, radiant Soma. He who meditates upon him as such has abundant Soma pressed in his principal and auxiliary sacrifices every day, and his food never gets short.

4 Gargya said, That being who is in lightning, I meditate upon as Brahman Ajatasatru said, "Please don t talk about him. I meditate upon him as powerful He who meditates upon him as such becomes powerful, and his progeny too becomes powerful.

5 Gargya said, This being who is in the ether, I meditate upon as Brahman Ajatasatru said, "Please don t talk about him. I meditate upon him as full and unmoving He who meditates upon him as such is filled with progeny and cattle, and his progeny is never extinct from this world.

6 Gargya said, This being who is in air, I meditate upon as Brahman Ajatasatru said, "Please don t talk about him. I meditate upon him as the Lord, as irresistible, and as the unvanquished army. He who meditates upon him as such ever becomes victorious and invincible, and conquers his enemies.

7 Gargya said, This being who is in fire, I meditate upon as Brahman Ajatasatru said, "Please don t talk about him. I meditate upon him as forbearing He who meditates upon him as such becomes forbearing, and his progeny too becomes forbearing.

8 Gargya said, This being who is in water, I meditate upon as Brahman Ajatasatru said, "Please don t talk about him. I meditate upon him as agreeable He who meditates upon him as such has only agreeable things coming to him, and not contrary ones; also from him are born children who are agreeable.

9 Gargya said, This being who is in a looking glass, I meditate upon as Brahman Ajatasatru said, "Please don t talk about him. I meditate upon him as shining He who meditates upon him as such becomes shining, and his progeny too becomes shining. He also outshines all those with whom he comes in contact.

10 Gargya said, This sound that issues behind a man as he walks, I meditate upon as Brahman Ajatasatru said, "Please don t talk about him. I meditate upon him as life He who meditates upon him as such attains his full term of life in this world, and life does not depart from him before the completion of that term.

11 Gargya said, This being who is in the quarters, I meditate upon as Brahman Ajatasatru said, "Please don t talk about him. I meditate upon him as second and as non separating He who meditates upon him as such gets companions, and his followers never depart from him.

12 Gargya said, This being who identifies himself with the shadow, I meditate upon as Brahman Ajatasatru said, "Please don t talk about him. I meditate upon him as death He who meditates upon him as such attains his full term of life in this world, and death does not overtake him before the completion of that term.

13 Gargya said, This being who is in the self, I meditate upon as Brahman Ajatasatru said, "Please don t talk about him. I meditate upon him as self possessed. He who meditates upon him as such becomes self possessed, and his progeny too becomes self possessed. Gargya remained silent.

14 Ajatasatru said, is this all This is all By knowing this much one cannot know Brahman() Gargya said, I approach you as a student

15 Ajatasatru said, It is contrary to usage that a Brahmana should approach a Kshatriya thinking, "he will teach me about Brahman". However I will instruct you Taking Gargya by the hand he rose. They came to a sleeping man. Ajatasatru() addressed him by these names, Great, White robed, radiant, Soma The man did not get up. (The King) pushed him with the hand till he awoke. Then he got up.

16 Ajatasatru said, When this being full of consciousness (identified with the mind) was thus asleep, where was it, and whence did it thus come Gargya did not know that.

17 Ajatasatru said, When this being full of consciousness is thus asleep, it absorbs at the time the functions of the organs through its own consciousness, and lies in the Akasa (Supreme Self) that is in the heart. When this being absorbs them, it is called Svapiti. Then the nose is absorbed, the organ of speech is absorbed, the eye is absorbed, the ear is absorbed, and the mind is absorbed

18 When it thus remains in the dream state, these are its achievements It then becomes an emperor, as it were, or a noble Brahmana, as it were, or attains states high or low, as it were. As an emperor, taking his citizens, moves about as he pleases in his own territory, so does it, thus taking the organs, move about as it pleases in its own body.

19 Again when it becomes fast asleep when it does not know anything it comes back along the seventy two thousand nerves called Hita, which extend from the heart to the pericardium (the whole body), and remains in the body. As a baby, or an emperor, or a noble Brahmana lives, having attained the acme of bliss, so does it remain.

20 As a spider moves along the thread (it produces), and as from a fire tiny sparks fly in all directions, so from this Self emanate all organs, all worlds, all Devas and all beings. Its secret name Upanishad() is the Truth of Truth The vital force is truth, and It is the Truth of that.

KHANDA 2

1 He who knows the calf with its abode, its special resort, its post and its tether kills his seven envions kinsmen the vital force in the body is indeed the calf; this body is its abode, the head its special resort, strength its post, and food its tether.

2 These seven Devas that prevent decay worship it Through these pink lines in the eye Rudra attends on it; through the water that is in the eye, Parjanya; through the pupil, the Sun; through the dark portion, fire; through the white portion, Indra; through the lower eye lid the Earth attends on it; and through the upper eye lid, Heaven. He who knows it as such never has any decrease of food.

3 Regarding this there is the following pithy verse there is a bowl that has its opening below and bulges at the top; various kinds of knowledge have been put in it; seven sages sit by its side, and the organ of speech, which has communication with the Vedas, is the eighth The bowl that has its opening below and bulges at the top is the head of ours, for it is the bowl that has its opening below and bulges at the top. various kinds of knowledge have been put in it refers to the organs; these indeed represent various kinds of knowledge. Seven sages sit by its side refers to the organs; they indeed are the sages. The organ of speech, which has communication with the Vedas, is the eighth because the organ of speech is the eighth and communicates with the Vedas.

4 These two (ears) are Gotama and Bharadvaja this one is Gotama, and this one is Bharadvaja These two (eyes) are Visvamitra and Jamadagni this one is Visvamitra, and this one Jamadagni. These two (nostrils) are Vasistha, and Kashyapa this one is Vasistha, and this one Kashyapa the tongue is Atri, for through the tongue food is eaten. Atri is but this name Atti He who knows it as such becomes the eater of all, and everything becomes his food.

KHANDA 3

1 Brahman has but two forms gross and subtle, mortal and immortal, limited and unlimited, defined and undefined.

2 The gross (form) is that which is other than air and the ether. It is mortal, it is limited, and it is defined. The essence of that which is gross, mortal, limited and defined is the Sun that shines, for it is the essence of the defined.

3 Now the subtle it is air and the ether. It is immortal, it is unlimited, and it is undefined. The essence of that which is subtle, immortal, unlimited and undefined is the being that is in the Sun, for that is the essence of the undefined. This is with reference to the Devas.

4 Now with reference to the body the gross form is but this what is other than (the corporeal) air and the ether that is in the body. It is mortal, it is limited and it is defined. The essence of that which is gross, mortal, limited and defined is the eye, for it is the essence of the defined.

5 Now the subtle it is (the corporeal) air and the ether that is in the body. It is immortal, it is unlimited, and it is undefined. The essence of that which is subtle, immortal, unlimited and undefined is this being that is in the right eye, for this is the essence of the undefined.

6 The form of that being is as follows like a cloth dyed with turmeric, or like grey sheep s wool, or like the (scarlet) insect called Indragopa, or like a tongue of fire, or like a white lotus, or like a flash of lightning. He who knows it as such attains splendour like a flash of lightning. Now therefore the description (of Brahman) Not this, not this Because there is no other and more appropriate description than this Not this Now Its name The Truth of truth The vital force is truth, and It is the Truth of that.

KHANDA 4

1 Maitreyi, my dear said Yajnavalkya, I am going to renounce this life. Allow me to finish between you and Katyayani

2 Thereupon Maitreyi said, Sir, if indeed this whole Earth full of wealth be mine, shall I be immortal through that No replied Yajnavalkya, your life will be just like that of people who have plenty of things, but there is no hope of immortality through wealth.

3 Then Maitreyi said, What shall I do with that which will not make me immortal? Tell me, sir, of that alone which you know (to be the only means of immortality).

4 Yajnavalkya said, My dear, you have been my beloved (even before), and you say what is after my heart. Come, take your seat, I will explain it to you. As I explain it, meditate (on its meaning).

5 He said: It is not for the sake of the husband, my dear, that he is loved, but for one s own sake that he is loved. It is not for the sake of the Wife, my dear, that she is loved, but for one s own sake that she is loved. It is not for the sake of the sons, my dear, that they are loved, but for one s own sake that they are loved. It is not for the sake of wealth, my dear, that it is loved, but for one s own sake that it is loved. It is not for the sake of the Brahmana, my dear, that he is loved, but for one s own sake that he is loved. It is not for the sake of the Kshatriya, my dear, that he is loved, but for one s own sake that he is loved. It is not for the sake of worlds, my dear, that they are loved, but for one s own sake that they are loved. It is not for the sake of the Devas, my dear, that they are loved, but for one s own sake that they are loved. It is not for the sake of beings, my dear, that they are loved, but for one s own sake that they are loved. It is not for the sake of all, my dear, that all is loved, but for one s own sake that it is loved. The Self, my dear Maitreyi, should be realised should be heard of, reflected on and meditated upon. By the realisation of the Self, my dear, through hearing, reflection and meditation, all this is known.

6 The Brahmana ousts (slights) one who knows him as different from the Self. The Kshatriya ousts one who knows him as different from the Self. Worlds oust one who knows them as different from the Self. The Devas oust one who knows them as different from the Self. Beings oust one who knows them as different from the Self. All ousts one who knows it as different from the Self. This Brahmana, this Kshatriya, these worlds, these Devas, these beings, and this all are this Self.

7 As, when a drum is beaten, one cannot distinguish its various particular notes, but they are included in the general note of the drum or in the general sound produced by different kinds of strokes.

8 As, when a conch is blown, one cannot distinguish its various particular notes, but they are included in the general note of the conch or in the general sound produced by different kinds of playing.

9 As, when a Vina is played, one cannot distinguish its various particular notes, but they are included in the general note of the Vina or in the general sound produced by different kinds of playing.

10 As from a fire kindled with wet faggot diverse kinds of smoke issue, even so, my dear, the Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, Sama Veda, Atharvangirasa, history, mythology, arts, Upanishads, pithy verses, aphorisms, elucidations and explanations are (like) the breath of this infinite Reality. They are like the breath of this (Supreme Self).

11 As the ocean is the one goal of all sorts of water, as the skin is the one goal of all kinds of touch, as the nostrils are the one goal of all odours, as the tongue is the one goal of all savours, as the eye is the one goal of all colours as the ear is the one goal of all sounds, as the Manas is the one goal of all deliberations, as the intellect is the one goal of all kinds of knowledge, as the hands are the one goal of all sort of work, as the organ of generation is the one goal of all kinds of enjoyment, as the anus is the one goal of all excretions, as the feet are the one goal of all kinds of walking, as the organ of speech is the one goal of all Vedas.

12 As a lump of salt dropped into water dissolves with (its component) water, and no one is able to pick it up, but from wheresoever one takes it, it tastes salt, even so, my dear, this great, endless, infinite Reality is but Pure Intelligence. (The Self) comes out (as a separate entity) from these elements, and (this separateness) is destroyed with them. After attaining (this oneness) it has no more consciousness. This is what I say, my dear. So said Yajnavalkya.

13 Maitreyi said, Just here you have thrown me into confusion, sir by saying that after attaining (oneness) the self has no more consciousness Yajnavalkya said, Certainly, I am not saying anything confusing, my dear; this is quite sufficient for knowledge, O Maitreyi

14 Because when there is duality, as it were, then one smells something, one sees something, one hears something, one speaks something, one thinks something, one knows something. (But) when to the knower of Brahman everything has become the self, then what should one smell and through what, what should one see and through what, what should one hear and through what, what should one speak and through what, what should one think and through what, what should one know and through what Through what should one know That owing to which all this is known through what, O Maitreyi, should one know the Knower

KHANDA 5

1 This Earth is (like) honey to all beings, and all beings are (like) honey to this Earth. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this Earth, and the shining, immortal, corporeal being in the body. (These four) are but this Self. This Self( knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all.

2 This water is (like) honey to all beings, and all beings are (like) honey to this water. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this water, and the shining, immortal being identified with the seed in the body. (These four) are but this Self. This Self( knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all.

3 This fire is (like) honey to all beings, and all beings are (like) honey to this fire. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this fire, and the shining, immortal being identified with the organ of speech in the body. (These four) are but this Self. This Self( knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all.

4 This air is (like) honey to all beings, and all beings are (like) honey to this air. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this air, and the shining, immortal being who is the vital force in the body. (These four) are but this Self. This Self( knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all.

5 This Sun is (like) honey to all beings, and all beings are (like) honey to this Sun. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this Sun, and the shining, immortal being identified with the eye in the body. (These four) are but this Self. This Self( knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all.

6 These quarters is (like) honey to all beings, and all beings are (like) honey to these quarters. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is these quarters, and the shining, immortal being identified with the ear and with the time of hearing in the body. (These four) are but this Self. This Self( knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all.

7 This Moon is (like) honey to all beings, and all beings are (like) honey to this Moon. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this Moon, and the shining, immortal being identified with the mind in the body. (These four) are but this Self. This Self( knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all.

8 This lightning is (like) honey to all beings, and all beings are (like) honey to this lightning. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this lightning, and the shining, immortal being identified with light in the body. (These four) are but this Self. This Self( knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all.

9 This cloud is (like) honey to all beings, and all beings are (like) honey to this cloud. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this cloud, and the shining, immortal being identified with sound and voice in the body. (These four) are but this Self. This Self( knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all.

10 This ether is (like) honey to all beings, and all beings are (like) honey to this ether. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this ether, and the shining, immortal being identified with the ether in the heart, in the body. (These four) are but this Self. This Self( knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all.

11 This righteousness Dharma() is (like) honey to all beings, and all beings are (like) honey to this righteousness. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this righteousness, and the shining, immortal being identified with righteousness in the body. (These four) are but this Self. This Self( knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all.

12 This truth is (like) honey to all beings, and all beings are (like) honey to this truth. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this truth, and the shining, immortal being identified with truth in the body. (These four) are but this Self. This Self( knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all.

13 This human species is (like) honey to all beings, and all beings are (like) honey to this human species. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this human species, and the shining, immortal being identified with the human species in the body. (These four) are but this Self. This Self( knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all.

14 This (cosmic) body is (like) honey to all beings, and all beings are (like) honey to this (cosmic) body. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this (cosmic) body, and the shining, immortal being who is this (individual) self. (These four) are but this Self. This Self( knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all.

15 This Self, already mentioned, is the ruler of all beings, and the king of all beings. Just as all the spokes are fixed in the nave and the felloe of a Chariot wheel, so are all beings, all Devas, all worlds, all organs and all these (individual) selves fixed in this Self.

16 This is that meditation on things mutually helpful which Dadhyac, versed in the Atharva Veda, taught the Asvins. Perceiving this the Rishi Mantra() said, O Asvins in human form, that terrible deed called Damsa which you committed out of greed, I will disclose as a cloud does rain (how you learnt) the meditation on things mutually helpful that Dadhyac, versed in the Atharva Veda, taught you through a Horse s head.

17 This is that meditation on things mutually helpful which Dadhyac, versed in the Atharva Veda, taught the Asvins. Perceiving this the Rishi said, O Asvins, you set a Horse s head on (the shoulders of) Dadhyac, versed in the Atharva Veda. O terrible ones, to keep his word, he taught you the (ritualistic) meditation on things mutually helpful connected with the Sun, as also the secret (spiritual) meditation on them.

18 This is that meditation on things mutually helpful which Dadhyac, versed in the Atharva Veda, taught the Asvins. Perceiving this the Rishi said, He made bodies with two feet and bodies with four feet. That supreme Being first entered the bodies as a bird (the subtle body). On account of his dwelling in all bodies, He is called the Purusha. There is nothing that is not covered by Him, nothing that is not pervaded by Him.

19 This is that meditation on things mutually helpful which Dadhyac, versed in the Atharva Veda, taught the Asvins. Perceiving this the Rishi said, (He) transformed Himself in accordance with each form; that form of His was for the sake of making Him known. The Lord on account of Maya (notions superimposed by ignorance) is perceived as manifold, for to Him are yoked ten organs, nay, hundreds of them. He is the organs; He is ten and thousands many and infinite. That Brahman is without prior or posterior, without interior or exterior. This self, the perceiver of everything, is Brahman. This is the teaching.

KHANDA 6

1 Now the line of teachers: Pautimasya (received it) from Gaupavana. Gaupavana from another Pautimasya. This Pautimasya from another Gaupavana. This Gaupavana from Kausika. Kausika from Kaundinya. Kaundinya from Sandilya. Sandilya from Kausika and Gautama. Gautama

2 From Agnivesya. Agnivesya from Sandilya and Anabhimlata. Anabhimlata from another of that name. He from a third Anabhimlata. This Anabhimlata from Gautama. Gautama from Saitava and Pracinayogya. They from Parasarya. Parasarya from Bharadvaja. He from Bharadvaja and Gautama. Gautama from another Bharadvaja. He from another Parasarya. Parasarya from Baijavapayana. He from Kausikayani. Kausikayani

3 From Ghrtakausika. Ghrtakausika from Parasaryayana. He from Parasarya. Parasarya from Jatukarnya. Jatukarnya from Asurayana and Yaska. Asurayana from Traivani. Traivani from Aupajandhani. He from Asuri. Asuri from Bharadvaja. Bharadvaja from Atreya. Atreya from Manti. Manti from Gautama. Gautama from another Gautama. He from Vatsya. Vatsya from Sandilya. Sandilya from Kaisorya Kapya. He from Kumaraharita. Kumaraharita from Galava. Galava from Vidarbhi kaundinya. He from Vatsanapat Babhrava. He from Pathin Saubhara. He from Ayasya Angirasa. He from Abhuti Tvastra. He from Visvarupa Tvastra. He from the Asvins. They from Dadhyac Atharvana. He from Atharvan Daiva. He from Mrtyu Pradhvamsana. He from Pradhvamsana. Pradhvamsana from Ekarsi. Ekarsi from Viprachitti. Viprachitti from Vyasri. Vyasti from Sanaru. Sanaru from Sanatana. Sanatana from Sanaga. Sanaga from Paramesthin Viraj(). He from Brahman Hiranyagarbha(). Brahman is self born. Salutation to Brahman.

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